Class Notes (839,191)
Canada (511,223)
PHAR 100 (175)
Lecture

18Hypertension.pdf

5 Pages
116 Views

Department
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Course Code
PHAR 100
Professor
Hisham Elbatarny

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Description
Hypertension Blood Pressure (BP) • the force that the circulating blood exert on the walls of the arteries • the heart pumps out blood into different tissues through the arteries • circulating blood carries: ◦ nutrients and O2 to tissues ◦ waste and CO2 back to the heart Normal BP • systolic BP (SBP) = heart in contraction → ranges between 90 to 140 ← arterial(mediumsized) blood pressure • diastolic BP (DBP) = heart in relaxation → ranges between 60 to 90 Factors Controlling BP • blood volume: ◦ ↑ volume: ↑ BP ◦ ↓ volume: ↓ BP • peripheral resistance (PR) comes from friction in arterioles: ◦ vasoconstriction (VC): ↑ PR: ↑ BP ◦ vasodilatation (VD): ↓ PR: ↓ BP • sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity: ◦ ↑ activity: ↑ noradrenaline: VC → ↑ BP ◦ ↓ activity: ↓ noradrenaline: VD → ↓ BP • renin-angiotensin system (most important) - reninenzyme released bykidneyWHEN blood Renin-angiotensin System pressure drops - reninconverts angiotensinogeninto angiotensinI - whichis thenconverted into angiotensinII, whichis helped bythe angiotensin-convertingenzyme (ACE) - angiotensinII: 1. causes vasoconstriction 2. stimulates adrenalgland to release aldosterone: causes saltAND water retention 3. stimulates release ofanti-diuretic hormone (ADH): causes water retension - end result:increased BP - problem:overstimulationofthis system→ hypertension High Blood Pressure • hypertension: need to do multiple measurements at different times to confirm hypertension ◦ PB > 140 / 90 • classification of hypertension: Risk Factors of Hypertension • non-controllable: age, male sex, family history • controllable: obesity, physical inactivity, smoking Diagnosis of Hypertension • usually asymptomatic (no symptoms) • based on measuring BP • complications: stroke, heart disease, renal damage, retinal damage Control of Hypertension • life long • ↓ incidence of complications • target values: ◦ hypertension alone: <140/90 ◦ hypertension + DM (diabetes): <130/80 → diabetes “enemy” to cardiovascular system too ◦ compliance Non-compliance • causes: ◦ dietary: e.g., high salt ◦ medication: e.g., costs, side effects, long term therapy • improvement: behavioral changes Treatment of Hypertension • non pharmacological measures • pharmacotherapy • treatment of complications Non Pharmacological Measures (Modification of Life Style) Dietary management: • reduce body weight • low salt diet • low fat diet • adequate amounts of: potassium, calcium and magnesium (good for heart and body) Change habits: • reduce alcohol consumption • stop smoking • regular exercise • stress management Pharmacotherapy (Antihypertensive Drugs) • diuretics: amount salt and water in urine • sympatholytics: inhibit sympathetic nervous system • calcium channel blockers (CCB): block Ca into cell • angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) • angiotensin recept
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit