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Lecture 3

PSYC 100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Random Effects Model, Wyeth, Opportunity Cost

Course Code
PSYC 100
Jordan Poppenk

of 5
Monday, September 21, 2015
PSYC 100: Week 3
Online Lesson Notes
-Nativism: behaviour arising from your genes
-Empiricism: behaviour arising from your environment
-Locus/Loci: the location of a gene on the chromosome
-Homozygous: When both genes at the locus are the same
-Heterozygous: When the genes at the locus are different
-Dominant Gene: the allele for brown eye colour is dominant to the gene of blue eye colour
-Recessive Gene: the allele for blue eye colour is recessive to the gene of brown eye colour and will be
overpowered by a single dominant gene
-Concordance: the degree of similarity for twins
-Single Gene traits: some behaviours are dependent on one single gene and a mutation of this gene can
cause mild to severe deficits
-Polygenic: most behaviours and disease states are caused by a mutation across many genes
-Developmental Psychology: concerned with the environmental variance component, the prenatal and
postnatal environmental influences that affect individuals during their lifetime
-Evolutionary Psychology: concerned with the design of human nature, all human behavioural
characteristics that are the product of natural selection in ancestral environments
-Behavioural Genetics: concerned with the partition of individual differences into genetic and
environmental variance components
-Naturalistic Fallacy: the belief that characteristics produced by evolution are either natural and good or
unnatural and morally bad. In fact, they are neither; they are simply the result of reproductive success
-Parental Investment: consists of the energy, time, resources, and opportunity cost associated with
producing offspring
-Mating Opportunity Cost: the effort and costs incurred in securing and preserving mating opportunities
-Polygyny: means that some males have multiple female reproductive partners and some have very few
or none at all
-Epigamy: a form of sexual selection based on the alteration of appearance in some way that provides
greater attraction
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Monday, September 21, 2015
-Inclusive Fitness: defined as the sum of an individual’s personal reproductive success and his or her
influence upon the reproductive success of relatives, weighted according to their relatedness to the
-Animal Nepotism: animals have often been observed to act not only to increase their own fitness but
also to avoid reducing the fitness of their relatives
-Reciprocal Altruism: altruism in which people behave altruistically toward one another because they
are confident that such acts will be reciprocated toward either them or their kin
Tutorial Notes
TA: Matt
-General Questions: Moodle Class Cafe
-Personal Issues:
What are the Characteristics of an Operation Definition?
-Can be subjective but has to be reliable
-Limit confounding variables
-Must be valid
Lecture Notes
Genetics and Evolution
What do genetics and evolution have to do with behaviour, thought and experience?
-N.C. Wyeth: an artist, had artistic children and then his grandchildren were artistic
An example of how behavioural traits run in a family
Their artistic family could have been encouraged by: art supplies, family social network, home
schooling, role models, sibling rivalry — the environment they grew up in influenced their behaviour
— nature vs nurture OR nativism vs empiricism
-Chromosome, DNA, Locus, Gene
-Genes contain the instructions for human instruction, they each code for something different
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Monday, September 21, 2015
Gene Version 1: green eyes
Gene Version 2: blue eyes
-Called an allele, the result is a trait
-Single Gene Trait: anxiety, coded on a single gene
-Polygenic Trait: IQ score, coded on various genes
-Humans have about 25 000 genes, all humans share 99.5% of genetic coding
Alleles vary from 50%, 25% or 12.5% depending on the degree of separation from your relatives
-Twin Studies: beings with the distinguishing of types of twins, either monozygotic or dizygotic twins
Monozygotic Twins: have a concordance rate, the amount of similarity
Dizygotic Twins: receive a quarter of the same material, if they have a lower concordance rate it can
be concluded that nurture has a greater influence that nature
Adoption Studies: twins separated at birth, given they have the same genetic material but grew up in
different environment, what is their concordance rate?
-Looking at the difference of concordance rates between dizygotic and monozygotic twins
-Choice to remove long-term census surveys: it is a non-representative (biased) Sample: low education,
poor, aboriginal, groups are underrepresented
In-Class Example: volunteers are extroverts and suggest strategies good for them, bad for introverts
Evolutionary Psychology and Functionalism
-How did behaviours contribute to evolution? Studied by William James
-Successful genes (and political strategies) persist, those who do not have children will have their genes
removed from the gene pool
Example: kin favoured in altruism, we care more about those who you have higher similar genetic
material, you feel a greater need to protect them because it helps your genes to survive
Example: bear defending a carcass, will chase off others who try to take it, their behaviour is
instinctive and helps it to survive so it can pass on its genes
Why does a dog turn around before it sleeps? Maybe it is surveying its area for predators. Is our
theory falsifiable?
-Criteria for Adaptive Behaviour:
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