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Lecture 2

Socy 275- week 2.docx

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Queen's University
SOCY 275
Vincent F Sacco

Socy 275: Week 2 September 16 , 2013 The poverty of the sociology of deviance  Sociologist typically look at deviance from an upper class perspective, and they tend to neglect the types of deviance that occur in more white collar areas of society  Why so we only study lower class people is because we generally label people, and it is only the powerless that get labeled, and therefore lead to us looking at a specific group of people  The attempt to label people, as deviant in this society is essentially useless, because we have the ability to change this definition and perception Early Deviance Theory  Objectives are to discuss the historical origins of contemporary theoretical accounts of deviant behaviour  To distinguish the two broad explanatory approaches to deviant behaviour—the classical school and the positivist school  Lombrosies way of thinking of the problem, continues to be extremely influential  To demonstrate how earlier explanation of deviant behaviour continue to influence modern though on subject Spiritual Perspectives  Basic assumptions  Assuming the world is general enchanted; it is easy to believe why natural disasters happen, and the people do bad things because of evil sprits  In the medieval times, we began to see the church joining with the general law and rule of society  This was not necessarily a bad thing, because before this people hurting each other was not the business of anyone other than those affecting each other  So when we combine church and state, we begin to see hegemony of rule across the state  Witch frenzies and trials by ordeal For example, burning witches, if the victim were a witch they would escape and also putting people in battle against each other and G-d would save the person who was right in the dispute  Legacy  The rise of the penitentiary—it wasn’t until the late 18 century that we ever thought of incarceration as a punishment. It was called penitentiary because it was assumed that the incarcerates would be penitent (remorseful)  Essentially by being locked up, people would be force to think about what they had done, and being to feel guilty, and try to repent for their actions  This is a more normalized type of spiritualism  Contemporary exorcism and ‘spiritual healing’—Some people truly believe that people who are deviant truly have been taken over by some form of evil spirit The Classical School  Emerged in the middle of the 18 century  Not a school, but a group of scholar or people who thought in a certain way about types of crimes  “The rationale person” and “free will”  The central assumption is that people, who do deviant things, do it as a result of a conscious choice of to do it. The choose to behave in that manner, and normally their choices are rationale, they do things that they seek or want to do, and things that will increase the pleasure in life, and they act on free will  The assumption of naturalism  It rest on the assumption of rule breaking only in the natural world Cesare Beccaria  The principle of the classical school  He was not a sociologist, or a criminologist in any contemporary sense  He was a social reformer who wrote on crimes and punishment  He wrote about it on the indictment of the criminal systems  His primary interest was a comprehensive critique of the inequalities and brutality of the 18 century European system of criminal justice. Implicit in this work is a rather well defined image of what criminals are like and why they do what they do  Presents us with an implicit working model of why he thinks crime happens  According to him, human being are essential natural create who walk on the basis of free will and are hedonistic calculus (about pleasure)  Human are guided by pleasure  We do things in life that are going to increase our pleasure and decrease our pain, and we do this based on choice and free will  And if this is true, than this is how crime works. If someone commits crimes they think that the act of the crime will give more pleasure that the risk associated with the crime  Criminal justice and violations of the social contract  We all surrender a certain amount of freedom in order to live in a peaceful and safe place  Because we surrender out rights, we are only surrendering a certain amount, the state has no authority to take away our rights other that the bare minimum  Because the legal system has the ability to override out life, than we shouldn’t have laws to guide morality and things like that, we should only have law to protect our safety between one another  The punishment the state is allowed to put out, must be the minimum punishment to outweigh the crime that has been committed, meaning there has to be slightly more pain received as punishment to than pleasure received from committing the crime  He than says the only reason to punish is to deter the person from committing or recommitting a crime  The characteristics of effective deterrence  From punishing people, two possible things can happen 1. General deterrence: Something that prevents other people from committing a crime (scares people from doing it) 2. Specific deterrence: Something that prevents an individual from recommitting the crime  Certainty: To be an effective deterrent a punishment has to have a certain amount of certainty, people need to think that they are certain to get caught  Severity: Is the punish severe enough that people do not want to risk receiving the punishment  Celerity: The speed of the punishment, how quickly the punishment is received  Certainty is said to be the most important to deter people from committing a crime  Certainty is much harder to employ than severity, but it is much more effective  One of the things he was best known for, is being very apposed to the death penalty  He made an argument that was both moral and empirical  He thought capital punishment hardened people and made them more barbarous, instead of stopping them from committing crimes, he also found it immoral  People who don’t know if capital punishments works say they have to know how many people were thinking of capital punishment and didn’t because they were scared of capital punishment—we do not have this information and cannot really obtain this information  He has a lot of influence in criminological theory, his ideas become very important to deviant theory and control theory  He led to theories that say in order to e
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