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Lecture 4

Management Learning- LECTURE 4.docx

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Global Management Studies
GMS 200
Bamidele Adekunle

Management Learning- Past and Present Lecture 4 Classical school of thought: Approaches include (Assumption: People are rational):  Scientific management – Frederick Taylor, The Gilberths  Administrative principles- Henry Fayol, Mary Parker Follet  Bureaucratic organization- Max Weber Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)  Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job.  Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job.  Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives.  Support workers by carefully planning their and removing obstacles. Scientific management (The Gilberths)  Motion study, Eliminating wasted motions improves performance. Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) rules of management:  Forecast, Planning Organization, Command, Coordination, Control. Key principles of management:  Scalar chain, Unity of command, Unity of direction. Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follet):  Groups and human cooperation  Forward-looking management insights Bureaucratic organization (Max Webber):  Bureaucracy - An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization. - Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority.  Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations: - Clear division of labour - Clear hierarchy of authority - Formal rules and procedures - Impersonality - Careers based on merit  Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy - Excessive paperwork or “red tape” - Slowness in handling problems - Rigidity in the face of shifting needs - Resistance to change - Employee apathy  Human resource approaches (Assumption: People are social and self-actualizing) include: - Hawthorne studies – Elton Mayo - Maslow’s theory of humans needs – Abraham Maslow - McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y- Douglas McGregor - Argyris’s theory of adult personality- Chris Argyris Hawthorne studies: - Initial study examined how economic incentives and physical conditions affected worker ouput. - No consistent relationship found. - “Psychological factors” influenced results - Relay assembly test-room studies - Employee attitudes, interpersonal relations, and group processes. - Lessons from the Hawthorne Studies. Maslow’s theory of human needs  A need is a physiological or psychological deficiency a person feels compelled to satisfy.  Need levels: - Physiological- Most basic of all human needs; - Safety- Need for security, protection, and stability in the events of day to day life - Social- Need for love, affection, sense of belongingness in one’s relationships with other people - Esteem- Need for esteem in eyes of others; need for respect, prestige, recognition and self esteem - Self-actualization –Highest level: need for self-fulfillment to grow and use abilities to fullest and most creative extent  Deficit principle - A satisfied need is not a motivator of behaviour.  Progression principle - A need becomes a motivator once the preceding lower-l
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