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Ch#5 NOTES.docx

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Human Resources
MHR 505
Genevieve Farrell

Chapter 5 Job DesignLearning Objectives1 Explain what is meant by job design and why it is important y Job designis the process if assigning tasks to a job including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs y Managers and organizational designers have to decide how to group tasks into separate jobs and jobs descriptions y Effective job design in imp bc the decision will impact EE activities as well as their motivation and performance2 Explain the work simplification roots of job design and contrast them to the contemporary search for meaning engagement and spirituality at work Work Simplification and Job Designy Scientific managementFredericks Taylor system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization for a job taskthis emphasized work simplification y Work simplificationstandardization and the narrow explicit specification of task activities for the worker y Work simplification leads to work alientationwhich represents the extent to which a person is disengaged from the world of work and holds a generalized unenthusiastic outlook toward it y Work simplification makes work boring monotonous and understimulation and may cause a variety of work problems and lead to high turnoverThe Contemporary Search for Meaning in Job Design y Increasingly people want more from work than what orgs traditionally provide y People desire work that is more meaningful and more fully in accord with their lives y Meaningfulness is defined as the value of a work goal or purpose judged in relation to an indvls own ideas or standards y Meaningfulness has been viewed in 2 different ways 1 the degree to which a job is experienced as meaningful and 2 how one views work and its degree of centrality in ones life1 The Meaningfulness of Work y Employee engagementthe state of emotional and intellectual involvement that EEs have in their own org y When EEs are engaged at work they express themselves physically cognitively and emotionally when performing their jobs y Workplace spiritualitythat which grounds people through the meaningfulness of their work enabling them to transcend the tedious aspects of their work and to connect to others y Spiritual workplaces are distinguishable partly by the absence of negativity excessive control egocentric bhvr mistrust dishonestly backstabbing and a strong hierarchy2 Work Definition and Centralityy Work centrality is defined as a persons belief regarding the degree of importance at work plays in his or her life y The concept of work centrality in linked to that of workaholismthe individuals steady and considerable allocation of time to work controlling for the financial needs for such an investment 3 Describe the job characteristics model JCM and how it is used to improve the design of jobsy Job Characteristics Model JCMa viewpoint whereby workers who perform jobs that contain 5 core job characteristics will be more likely to achieve favourable work outcomes In addition workers who have high growthneed strength GNS are more likely to achieve these outcomes than those with low growthneed strength y The JCM model is used in 2 significant ways 1 helps us diagnose the degree to which a job has motivation potential 2 it helps us redesign jobs to increase the likelihood than EEs will find them intrinsically motivatingThe 5 Job Characteristics y The JCM model has 5 core job characteristics y The model assumes that if the 5 core characteristics are present in a job the job holder is more likely to experience meaningfulness responsibility and knowledge or results 1 Skill Variety the degree to which a job includes different activities and involves the use of multiple skills and talents of the EE
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