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Chapter 15.docx

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Ryerson University
Human Resources
MHR 650
Frank Miller

Chapter 15: Organizational Change Lewin’s Forcefield Analysis Model - Force field analysis: Kurt Lewin’s model of system-wide change that helps change agents diagnose the forces that drive and restrain proposed organizational change. There are two sides of the force field that represents: o Driving forces – pushes organization toward a new state of affairs (eg. New competitors or technologies, evolving workforce expectations, or a host of other environmental changes) o Restraining forces (aka. Resistance to change) – maintain the status quo - Unfreezing: the first part of the change process whereby the change agent produces disequilibrium between the driving and restraining forces - Refreezing: the latter part of the change process in which systems and conditions are introduced and reinforce and maintain the desired behaviours Why Employees Resist Change - Direct costs – people tend to block actions that result in higher direct costs or lower benefits than the existing situation - Saving face – resists change as a political strategy to “prove” that the decision is wrong or that the person encouraging change is competent - Fear of the unknown – worry that they cannot adjust to the new work requirements - Breaking routines – the need to bring in new knowledge and the need to unlearn - Incongruent organizational systems – rewards, information systems, patterns of authority, career paths, selection criteria, and other systems and structures are both friends and foes of organizational change - Incongruent team dynamics – teams develop and enforce conformity to a set of norms that guide behaviour Reducing the Restraining Forces Six strategies to address the sources of employee resistance Strategy Example When Applied Problems Communication Customer complaint letters shown to When employees don’t feel an urgency Time-consuming and potentially costly employees for change, or don’t know how the change will affect them Learning Employees learn how to work in teams When employees need to break old Time-consuming and potentially costly as company adopts a team based routines and adopt new role patterns structure Employee Company forms new task force to When the change effort needs more Very time-consuming. Might also lead to Involvement recommend new customer service employee commitment, some employees conflict and poor decisions if employees’ practices need to save face, and/or employee ideas interests are incompatible with would improve decisions about the organizational needs change strategy - Future search: system-wide group sessions, usually lasting a few days, in which parti
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