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Lecture

ITM 102 Lecture Notes - Systems Development Life Cycle, Stakeholder Analysis, Business Analyst


Department
Information Technology Management
Course Code
ITM 102
Professor
Ross Mc Naughton

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Chapter 7 - Creating IS Solutions and Managing IS Projects
Critical Pre-Development Questions
-The more complex a system, the more difficult it can be to build, buy, and manage.
-Problems may be related to:
-Strategic choices or forces
-Flawed or inefficient business processes
-Unsuccessful business model
-Concept design and inception stage is referred to as “pre-development” questions that
happen before and organization decides to start a system design project.
1. What are we planning and why?
2. Is the project feasible?
3. Should we build or buy/lease?
4. If we build, should we do it in-house or outsource it?
What Are We Building and Why?
-The process of determining the best IS design for a organizations when it recognizes
that an IS can help it exploit an opportunity or solve a problem.
-An organization begins to understand its high level system requirements and also the
business case for why it makes sense to build the system.
Is the Project Feasible?
-A feasible study is a detailed investigation and analysis of a proposed development
project that is undertaken to determine whether it is technically and economically possi-
ble to successfully build the proposed system.
-A project is technically feasible if the required technology is available (or created).
-The study must conclude that the company is technically capable of both acquiring and
deploying the required technology for the IS solution it envisions.
-An organization can determine technical feasibility by examining potential solutions
and evaluating these solutions based on its capabilities and the capabilities of any tech-
nology partners it may choose to work with.
-A project is financially feasible if the organization can pay for the project, and the
project presents a sound investment of the organization’s limited resources.
-To determine financial feasibility, an organization must show that it can afford to build
or buy and information system, and that the IS will financially benefit the organization.
-Some costs and benefits are tangible, which means that a value can easily be applied.

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Chapter 7 - Creating IS Solutions and Managing IS Projects
-Other costs and benefits are intangible, meaning they are difficult to measure in mone-
tary terms.
Should We Build or Buy/Lease
-Buying, leasing, or building.
-To select the best option, an organization needs to examine its requirements and the
advantages and disadvantages of each option.
-Building a complete IS can be a long and costly process.
-A firm pursues buying or leasing when time and cost have greater importance than
competitive advantage or customization.
-If there is a time-to-market factor, this is the most important decision.
-For a customer service system, it may be possible to lease a system.
-Leasing refers to using software as a service (Saas) or using an application service
provider (ASP).
-The major advantage with leasing a system is that the vendor is responsible for main-
taining and updating it.
Should We Develop In-House or Outsource?
-In-house development is staff and outsource is another company.
-Offshoring is when the outsourcing company is located primarily in a foreign country.
-Dimensions to be considered in this decision include any time-to-market imperative,
current financial performance, and risk tolerance.
IS Development Teams
The Importance of Stakeholders
-Stakeholders who are the subject matter experts (SMEs) can best inform you about
various aspects of the system in which you are not an expert.
-Stakeholder analysis should begin as part of the project feasibility study.
-Stakeholder analysis includes:
-a list of the stakeholders
-what each has at stake
-the degree of impact of each stakeholder can have on the project
-The stakeholder analysis also considers if they can expect resources from the stake-
holders and attempt to identify each stakeholder’s attitude toward the project and any
risk.

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Chapter 7 - Creating IS Solutions and Managing IS Projects
A Typical IS Project Team
-Project sponsor
-ensures that the project goals correspond to the organization’s business objec-
tives and is often a senior executive or someone in a position of authority.
-Project manager
-demands knowledge of methods and techniques to ensure delivery of the
project on time and on budget, and the ability to communicate project goals and
requirements to the project team and to co-ordinate the workflows of everyone
on the project team.
-Account management
-responsible for the sales and service of the project team.
-provide the initial point of contact to the client, as well as daily communication
with the client.
-Architecture and design
-provide a well-designed user interface.
-interfaces include multimedia components that require special skills in the areas
of art and design.
-Analysts
-provide the methods and processes to translate high level requirements in their
particular area into lower levels of detail that can be turned into code by pro-
grammers.
-system analyst deals with technical requirements
-business analyst deals with process and system design
-database analyst deals with mapping, data dictionary, data structures, etc.
-Developers
-creates the system itself by coding and deploying the technical infrastructure of
the system and programming it to perform required tasks.
-requires knowledge of both the hardware and software needed by the system to
function.
-Specialists
-handles unique aspects of the project and members are called SMEs (subject
matter experts).
-Client interface
-client may be internal or external customer of the team’s organization.
-client must define system requirements, negotiate contract terms, and maintain
oversight of the teams as the project progresses.
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