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Lecture 5

MHR 505 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Individual And Group Rights, Distributive Justice, Big Five Personality Traits

Human Resources
Course Code
MHR 505
Jonathan Hughes

of 4
Lecture 2 - Individual behaviour, personality and values
**MARS model-motivation**
—Employee motivation: the forces within a person that affect his or her direction,
intensity, and persistence of voluntary behaviour
—> Direction: The path among which people steer their effort
—> Intensity: the amount of effort allocated to the goal
—> Persistence: continuing the effort for a certain amount of time
—Ability: both the natural aptitudes and the learned capabilities required to successfully
complete a task
-Aptitudes: natural talent that help employees learn specific tasks more quickly and
perform them better (physical and mental)
-Learned capabilities are the skills and knowledge that you currently possess
-Competencies: result from superior performance
—Role perceptions: the degree to which a person understands the job duties assigned or
excepted of him/her
-Important because employees need to know where to direct their effort
-Essential for coordination with coworkers and other stakeholders
—Situational factors: Individual behaviour and performance depend on situation
-Conditions beyond the employee’s immediate control that facilitate behaviour
Types of individual behaviour
1) Task performance: goal directed behaviours under the individual’s control that support
organizational objectives
-Proficiency, adaptability (how well the employee responds, copes with and supports new
circumstances and work patterns), proactivity (how well the employee anticipates
environmental changes and initiates new work patterns that are aligned with those
2) Organizational citizenship behaviours: Various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to
others that support the organization’s social and psychological context
-Employees who engage in OCB’s tend to have higher task performance
—Counterproductive work behaviours: Voluntary behaviours that have the potential to
directly/indirectly harm the organization
-Harassing coworkers, creating unnecessary conflict, being untruthful, stealing
—Joining and staying with the organization: hiring and retaining talent is a critical
- Need to ensure that employees stay with company. Why? Keep intellectual capital and
because high turnover results in more $$
—Maintaining work attendance:
—> Presenteeism: Attending scheduled work when one’s capacity to perform is
significantly diminished by illness or other factors (depends on personality)
—Personality in organizations
—> Personality: The relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviours
that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those
-Measured in childhood and reflects who you are in adulthood
—Personality determinants: nature versus nurture
-Nature: genetic or hereditary origins; significantly affects our attitudes, decisions and
-Nurture: our socialization, life experiences, and other forms of interaction with the
—Five factor model of personality: 5 factor model: 5 broad dimensions representing most
personality traits CANOE
1) Conscientiousness: organized, dependable, goal-focused, thorough, disciplined,
2) Agreeableness: trusting, helpful, good natured, considerate, tolerant, selfless, generous
3) Neuroticism: anxious, insecure, self conscious, depressed, temperamental
4) Openness to experience: imaginative, creative, curious, autonomous, perceptive
5) Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, energetic, sociable (opposite id introversion)
—Jungian personality theory and the MBIT (used for team building and career
-Carl Jung proposed that personality is primarily represented by the individual’s
preferences regarding perceiving and judging information
—> Perceiving: a) sensing b) intuition
—> Judging: a) thinking b) feeling
Values in the workplace:
-Values serve as a moral compass that directs our motivation and potentially our
decisions and actions
1) Personal values: belonging to the individual
2) Shared values: groups of people holding the same values
3) Organizational values: throughout an organization
4) Cultural values: values shared across a society
—> How are values and personality different?
A) Values are evaluative: they tell us what we ought to do. Personality tells us what we
naturally tend to do
B) Personality is more innate and vales are influenced more by socialization
—Types of values [within 4 quadrants]
1) Openness to change: refers to the extent to which a person is motivated to pursue
innovative ways
2) Conservation: the extent to which a person is motivated to preserve the status quo
3) Self enhancement: refers to how much a person is motivated by self interest
4) Self transcendence: refers to the motivate the welfare of others and nature
—Values congruence: how similar a person’s values hierarchy is to the values hierarchy
of the organization, a co-worker, or another source of comparison
1) Person-organization values congruence: occurs when a person’s values are similar to
the organization’s dominant values —> employees will act in ways consistent with the
2) Espoused enacted value: congruence: how consistent the values apparent in our actions
(enacted) ware with what we say we believe in (espoused)
3) Organization community values congruence: refers to the similarity of an
organization’s dominant vales with the prevailing values of the community or society in
which it conducts business - think globalization
Ethical values and behaviours
—>Ethics: the study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are
right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad “the right thing to do”
—Three ethical principles:
1) Utilitarianism: We should choose the option that provides the chest degree of
satisfaction to those affected
2) Individual rights: the belief that everyone has entitlements that let him or her act in a
certain way
3) Distributive justice: people who are similar to each other should receive similar
benefits and burdens; those who are dissimilar should receive different benefits and
burdens in proportion to their dissimilarity
—Moral intensity, moral sensitivity, and situational influences
—>Moral intensity: the degree to which an issue demands the application of ethical
—>Moral sensitivity: the ability to recognize the presence of an ethical issue and
determine its relative importance (can quickly detect when unethical behaviours occur)
a) Empathy -being sensitive to the needs or others
b) Knowledge of prescriptive norms and rules - being in the certain field
c) Direct experience with moral dilemmas - great exposure to it
—>Situational influences:
-Supporting ethical behaviour: Have a code of ethical conduct in place. Can also train
employees in proper ethical conduct. Can also do anonymous reporting
Values across cultures
—> Individualism: the extent to which we value independence and person uniqueness.
Highly individualist people value personal freedom, control over their lives
—> Collectivism: the extent to which we value our duty to groups to which we belong
and to group harmony. Highly collectivist people define themselves by their group
memberships, emphasize their personal connection to others in their in groups
—> Power distance: refers to the extent to which people accept unequal distribution of
power in a society. High power distance accepts and value unequal power