MKT 500 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Neuroimaging, Galvanometer, Pupilometer

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11 Aug 2016
Mkt 500: Chapter 6
Chapter 6: Qualitative Research Technique
- The means of data collected during research falls into two main categories:
quantitative and qualitative
- Quantitative research – is research involving the administration of a set of
structured questions with predetermined response options to a large
number of respondents – usually requires a sample size of the population
and a formal procedure for gathering data
- Qualitative research (soft approach) – involves collecting, analyzing, and
interpreting data by observing what people do or say – any study that uses
observational technique or unstructured questioning - provide rich insight
into consumer behaviour
- Pluralistic research – the combination of qualitative and quantitative
research methods to gain advantages of both – common to start off with
exploratory qualitative techniques
Observation Techniques
- Observation methods – are techniques in which the researcher relies on his
or her own power of observation to obtain information
- Types of observation – there are 4 ways of organizing observations:
1. direct vs. indirect
2. covert vs overt
3. structured vs unstructured
4. in situ vs invented
- Direct vs Indirect
oDirect observation – observing behaviour as it occurs – Ex. If we want
to find out how much shoppers squeeze tomatoes to assess the
freshness, we would observe people actually picking up tomatoes
oIndirect observation – observing the effects or results of the
behaviour rather than the behaviour itself – Ex. Archives or physical
Archives – are secondary sources, such as historical records,
that can be applied to the present problem
Other examples include record of sales calls, scanner data, etc.
Physical traces – are tangible evidence of some past event – ex.
We might turn to garbology (observing the trash of subjects
being studied) as a way of finding out how much recycling of
plastic milk bottles occur
- Covert vs Overt
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oCovert observation – the subject is unaware that he or she is being
observed - Ex. On-way mirrors or hidden cameras – used to see
typical beahviour
oOvert Observation – when the respondent knows he or she is being
observed – ex. Labatory settings, recording of sales calls etc.
- Structured vs unstructured
oStructured observation – the researcher identifies beforehand which
behaviours are to be observed and recorded – checklists or a
standardized observation form is used
oUnstructured Observation – there are no predetermined restrictions
on the observers notes – the observer just simply watches and
records what he or she deems as being relevant or interesting
- In situ vs Invented
oIn sit observation – the researcher observes the behaviour exactly as
it happens – Ex. Family meal is observed from he start to the finish as
it takes place in their home
oInvented observation – when the researcher creates the situation –
Ex. A researcher may ask people to record themselves using a new
toilet bowl cleaner
Appropriate conditions for the use of observations
- Observation is used with behaviours that take place over a short time
interval. Such as shopping in a supermarket and waiting in a bank teller line
-Public behaviour refers to behaviour that occurs in a setting the researcher
can readily observe such as shopping in a grocery store or with children in a
department store
-Faulty recall occurs when the actions or activities are so repetitive or
automatic that the observed person cannot recall specifics about the
behaviour under question – ex. People cant recall how many times they
stared at their wrist watch while waiting in line at a store or how many web
pages they visited when shopping online
Advantages of observational data
- The main advantage is that they can see what consumers are actually doing
instead of relying on their self-report of what they think they do
- See their actual behaviour not reported behaviour
- Can be less costly and more accurate
Disadvantages of observational data
- due to the fact that normally only few people are being observed, it may
make it harder to depict how accurately those being observed represent all
consumers in the target population
- Researchers cant go up and ask the motives, attitudes or question why the
respondent behaved the way they did
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- Motivations, attitudes, intentions, and other internal conditions cannot be
- Focus groups are small groups of people brought together and guided
through an unstructured, spontaneous discussion for the purpose of gaining
information relevant to the research problem
- Usually the discussion does focus on a general are of interest
- Used to derive information from a limited sample of respondents
- Information from focus groups can be used to generate ideas, to learn the
respondents “vocabulary” when relating to a certain type of product , or to
gain some insights into basic needs and attitudes
- Due to its increasing popularity there are now many companies out there
that perform focus group research
How focus groups work
- There are 2 basic types: traditional and contemporary focus groups
- Traditional focus groups select about 6-12 people who interact in a dedicated
room, with a one-way mirror for client viewing, for about 2 hours -clients
are able to watch them without influencing what they do or say
- Contemporary focus group: are online and the client can observe the online
activity from any remote location
- Focus groups have moderators – these are people who guide and encourage
the participants – they sort of have to set a good atmosphere – the best ones
are experienced, enthusiastic, prepared, involved, energetic and open-
- Focus group report – summarizes the information provided by the focus
group participants relative to the research questions
- Two factors are crucial when analyzing data
1. Some sense must be made by translating the statements of participants
into categories and themes and the reporting the degree of consensus
apparent in the focus groups
2. The demographic and buyer behaviour characteristic of focus group
participants should be judged against the target market profile to assess
to what degree the groups represent the target market
Online focus groups
- online focus group – form of contemporary focus group in which respondents
communicate via internet forum, which clients can observe
- there is as sense of convenience as respondents can communicate from the
ease of their own home
- not face-to-face – virtual communication
- Advantages:
oNo physical setup necessary
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