BPK 110 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Vitamin B6, Lipid Metabolism, B Vitamins

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LECTURE 7 VITMAINS
*FOR EXAM, KNOW 2 FUNCTIONS, 2 SOURCES, AND 1 SYMPTOM OF DEFICIENTY, 1 SYMPTOM
OF TOXICITY FOR EACH VIT AND MINERAL
Intro
- Organic
- Only small amt needed to regulate body
- All vits have one+ important functions
o Fortified foods; do’t necessarily make food healthy
B Vitamins
- Include thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, B6, B12
- Water soluble
- products, veg/fruits, milk/alternatives (B12), meat/alternatives
Vitamins A, D, E, K
- Fat soluble
- Grain products, veg/fruits (vit. A, E, K), milk/alt (vit. A, D), meat/alt (vit. A, D, K)
- Oils (Vit. E only)
Bioavailability
- Rate/extent nutrient is absorbed and used
- ~40-90% of vits in foods are absorbed by body
- Determinants
o Digestion efficiency, food transit time in digestive tract
o Previous nutrient intake/status
o Other foods eaten at same time
o Method of preparation
o Sources
o Foods vs. supplements
- Minimizing vit. Loss
o Very susceptible to destruction by 1) heat, 2) UV light, and 3) oxidation
o Refrigerate foods
o Store cut foods in airtight containers
o Wash fruits, then cut
o “tea eg i little ater; do’t oerook
Fat vs. Water-Soluble Vit WATER Soluble
- B vitamins and vit. C
- Absorption
o Directly into blood
- Transport
o None
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- Storage
o Throughout body
- Excretion
o Kidneys/urination
- Toxicity
o Only from supplements
- Requirement
o Frequently (every 1-3 days)
Fat vs. Water-Soluble Vit FAT Soluble
- Vitais A, D, E, K Ada Does’t Ee Ko
- Absorption
o In SI, triglycerides > glycerol and FA, lipids (by lipase) > micelles (by bile) > fat-sol.
vitamins incorporated > absorbed into mucosa cells > packed into chylomicrons >
enter lymph > enter blood
- Transport
o Protein carriers needed
- Storage
o Fat cells
- Excretion
o Not readily
- Toxicity
o More likely
- Requirement
o Periodically (weeks to months)
Vitamin Digestion/Absorption
1. Mouth
a. Chewing helps release vitamins
2. Stomach/Gallbladder/Pancreas
a. Digestion releases vitamins
b. Some niacin absorbed
c. Gallbladder releases bile; emulsifies fat, help fat-sol. vitamins absorb
d. Pancreas secretes digestive enzymes; help release vit in foods
3. SI
a. Fat soluble: triglycerides > glycerol and FA, lipids (by lipase) > micelles (by bile) >
fat-sol. vitamins incorporated > microvilli > mucosa cells > packed into
chylomicrons > enter lymph > enter blood
b. Water soluble: absorbed from SI > (some need to bind to molecules) > microvilli
> mucosal cell > blood
i. B12 mainly absorbed in lower SI (ileum)
4. LI
a. Bacteria synthesize small amt of vit, some absorbed
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