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Lecture 4

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HIST 106
Paul Garfinkel

Lecture questions: [1] Why (and how) was Europe “restored”? [2] Why did this “Restoration” spark so much political upheaval? [3] Why did these upheavals bolster new ideological movements? What was the Dual Revolution? • Industrialization − Factories − Railroads − Socio-economic problems − Demands for political and social reforms • Restoration − Political attempt to get rid of the revolution and re-establish conservatism in Europe [1] Why (and how) was Europe “restored”? Restored = conservatism • Began with the Congress of Vienna. Congress of Vienna (1815) • Alliance created to defeat Napoleon and end the revolution • Created the QuadrupleAlliance : Britain,Austria, Russia, Prussia • The point was to create a lasting peace and balance of power in Europe • Did this through the Congress System who would keep meeting. • Had two goals... − Restore the Bourbon monarchs (Louis XVIII/he is not a well suited ruler and powers know that France will go nowhere under him) − Create buffer states around France to contain them. (This also satisfied states’ claims to compensation) • Concert of Europe created (meant to be used for diplomacy between European nations that would prevent further conflict much like later League of Nations) • Part of the buffer states was the German Confederation, which united 38 German states with semi-autonomous rule. − Confederation overlooked by “diets” where states meet and is chaired byAustria and attended by Prussian delegates. (Power toAustria) • HolyAlliance created: Austria, Prussia, Russia − Started crusade to crush politics of revolution Conservatism • In this period is Kingly authority/divine right/tradition/hierarchy • Rejected reason and the rights of all men Klaus Von Metternich isAustrian noble who is defender of aristocracy and conservatism − Against liberalism − Self determination − All threats to monarchy and aristocracy • Liberalism is especially dangerous inAustria because − Very multi-ethnical and unstable − Small percentage of pop. is “Austrian” and feels a great deal of allegiance − If nationalism caught on there is no way to contain it. [2] Why did this “Restoration” spark so much political upheaval? • The seed of revolution has been planted (Idea that authority is not absolute). • Decided that repression by military is the only way to combat it. • An example of this repression is the Carlsbad Decrees. − Created spy networks/censorship of press/harsh dismissals for teachers − Targ
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