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BIOCH 200 (March 31, 2014) - Glucose Metabolism

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University of Alberta
Walter Dixon

Pretty much everything on here is important! BIOCH 200 Glucose Metabolism (March 31, 2014) • The glucose metabolism pathway will be talked about in detail: • Energy Investment Steps: 1. Glucose  glucose-6-phosphate (G6P)  Enzyme = hexokinase (tacks on phsophate)  This step is irreversible but it does not lock down the glycolysis pathway. Many biological pathways involve this step.  Coupled to ATP hydrolysis  Costs 1 ATP molecule 2. Glucose-6-phosphate (G6P)  fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) Pretty much everything on here is important!  These two molecules are actual structural isomers  What actually happens (isomerization): • Glucose-6-phosphate loses ring formation • Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase moves around atoms to turn it into fructose-6-phosphate (no atoms are lost or gained) • Fructose-6-phosphate transforms into ring conformation 3. Fructose-6-phosphate (F6P)  fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-BP)  Enzyme = phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)  Costs 1 ATP molecule  Rate-limiting and is the COMMITTED STEP IN GLYCOLYSIS  Rate limiting and tightly-regulated 4. F-1,6-BP  dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) + glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate (GAP)  Enzyme = aldolase  DHAP and GAP are isomers of each other • DHAP can easily then get isomerized by triose phosphate isomerase and become another GAP molecule. • We now have 2 GAP molecules (produced by two different reactions) 5. OVERALL EQUATION: glucose + 2ATP  2GAP + 2ADP + 2H+ • Energy Payout Steps: 1. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (GAP) + NAD+ + P  1,3- i bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG) + NADH  Enzyme = GAP dehydrogenase  Since
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