EAS 201: Lecture 15
February 8, 2019
• Lithosphere records ‘magnetic stripes’ of normal and reversed rocks.
• Magnitudes: energy released of magnitude 7 is ____ times greater than magnitude 5 =
• Increasing distance from a mid-oceanic ridge means rocks are older.
• Polar-wander curves on continents show how continents have moved, or drifted,
relative to the magnetic poles.
• Half-life of carbon-14 is ~ 5000 years, log found dated at 15000 years, what fraction of c-
14 remains (1/2 x ½ x ½ = 1/8).
• The planets formed from the same cloud of gas & dust as the sun.
• Inner and outer planets of solar system’s differences result of gradient in temperature
• Feldspar is dominant silicate in Earth’s crust.
• Earth is ~ 4.5 billion years old.
• Obsidian is NOT a mineral…
• Amplitude of ground movement in magnitude 7 earthquake is 100 times greater than
• Frost wedging is a physical weathering that increases surface area of rocks.
• Rate of plate movement is ~ 2-5 centimeters per year.
Lecture Notes (borrowed from Karlis Muehlenbachs’ slides February 8, 2019)
• Cryosphere: Glaciers & Glaciation
o Mass balance & glacier formation.
o Formation of glacier ice.
o Glacier flow & types.
o Glacial geology & geomorphology.
o Ice sheets & glaciation.
o Ice cores.
• Glaciers are formed when the accumulation of snow is greater than its removal