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LING101Phonology.pdf

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Department
Linguistics
Course
LING101
Professor
Marina Blekher
Semester
Winter

Description
Phonology 1 LING 101: Phonology February 6th to 25th 2014 Phonology: is the study of the system of sound pattern in a language  The phonemic level: the psychologically abstract level of sounds ● top [t ap]  ● Phonemes are represented in slashes /tap/  Phonemes are the phonological units into which predictable variants (allophones) of non­ contrastive  segments (not a meaningful difference ) are grouped. ● mental representation of sounds ● distinctive sound classes in a language signal a contrast in meaning (Ex. bit vs bid) ● represented in slashes ● each phoneme may have one or more allophones Allophones are variants of a phoneme, usually in complementary distribution or in free variation, and  phonetically similar ● physical representation of a phoneme, ● allophones of the same phoneme ar usually phonetically similar ● do not signal a contrast in meaning ● are represented in square brackets: [t]; [t ] Phonological rules derive allophones from phonemes (account for alterations among allophones) ● predict in which environment you would get which allophone Minimal Pair test: If we can find a minimal pair, the sounds belong to different phonemes ● [p aek] and [baek] ● Minimal Pairs have the same number of phonemes (sounds), same environment, only one  different segment, and the words have different meanings  Near Minimal pairs: If we can find a minimal pair, the sounds belong to different phonemes ● 2 segments occur in same environment (same sound neighbours), still has to have different  meaning, could have different number of sounds.  ● Ex. Theft and Them  1 Example: aspiration, doesn’t make a difference in meanings Phonology 2 Some Symbols:  # : word boundary  #___: word­initial position  ___#: word­final position  $: syllable boundary $___: syllable­initial boundary ___$: syllable­ final boundary  Allophones:  variants of phoneme, usually in complementary distribution or in free variation, and  phonetically similar ● allophones of the same phoneme are phonetically similar ● complementary distribution ○ allophones of the same phoneme never occur in same environment  ● ex. aspiration of voiceless stop before vowel (not anywhere else) Consonant Allophone Rules: 1. Aspiration of voiceless stops at the beginning of a syllable before vowels ○ [+ stop ­ voice] → [+aspiration]/ $____V   h ○ /p/ → [p],[p ] 2. Devoicing of appro
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