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Oct 15 - motivation continued.doc

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Physical Education and Sport
John Dunn

Oct 15 – Motivation Continued • We as human beings want to feel competent at what we do • If there is no feel of success, that is highly demotivating • Autonomy some sense of choice or self direction of what we do What is motivation • Defined as the direction and intensity of one’s effort (p 51) • 1.) direction of effort – watching someone and having a sense of whether or not they are motivated • Externally driven – someone is told to do something • 2.) intensity of effort – how hard someone works gives us an idea of motivation • 3.) Persistance of Effort – when we see people keep at an activity repeatedly and how long they engage in an activity gives us an idea of how badly they want to succeed • 4.) quality of effort • Can view motivation as investment of one’s effort Consider the “why” of motivation! (purpose) • Because I value to activity • Because I enjoy the activity • Because I am good at the activity • Because I get to be with friends when I do the activity • Because I am forced to do the activity Multiple Definitions of Motivation 1.) As a personality characteristic 2.) As an external influence 3.) As a consequence of behaviour Three Orientations for Studying Motivation 1.) Trait/Person-centered 2.) Situation/environmental-centered 3.) Interactionist Person/Trait-Centered Assessment of Motivation • Focus primarily upon individual characteristics • We aren’t concerned with environment, we are interested in studying motivation by looking at the person Research Example Dude, Olson, Templin Set in the context of achievement goal theory was developed by john Nichols who was an educational psychologist. He identified these 2 dominant goal orientations, task and ego orientation. • Theory suggests that a persons goal orientation (task vs. Ego) in an achievement situation will influence a person’s views of what can be considered acceptable behaviour in that achievement situation Task Orientation • Perceived competence/success based upon personal improvement, personal mastery, and high effort • Am i working hard in the pursuit of that mastery • Task oriented individuals don't judge their success relative to others; its a self focused frame of reference Ego Orientation • Perceived competence/success based on achieving favourable normative social comparison • People who are highly ego oriented judge success based on how they compare to others in the same environment. Someone with a high ego orientation doesn’t care if they are improving, but if they defeat the opponent, they view it as successful. Orthogonal (Independent) Constructs • Are constructs that exist in space at 90 degrees with one another • The classic mistake people do when talking about task and ego orientation is that they assume task an dego orientation lie on opposite ends of a continuum. So in other words, you cant be both task and ego oriented • However, you can be highly ego and highly task oriented • Ex. Evaluate performance as in did I win, and did I improve? • Ego and task constructs are orthogonal constructs, meaning that they co- exist together and we have to test someone on their task and ego orientation separately Participants • 56 male and 67 female high school uni b-ball players Instruments • Task & Ego orientation in sport questionnaire (TEOSQ) • Competitive Attitude Scale (“sportspersonship”) (assess “win at all costs” attitude) • Continuum of Injurious Sports Acts (“aggression”) – (6 b-ball scenarios describing aggressive behaviours that inflict increasing degree of injury on an opponent) Sportspersonship Results (Canonical Correlation Analysi
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