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Lecture 1

BIOM 2000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Secretion, Exocytosis, Hydrophile

Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BIOM 2000

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Physiology — Unit 1
Differentiate between anatomy + physiology
List levels of structural organization + provide examples
Explain homeostasis + role in human body
Discuss positive + negative feedback loops
Identify inorganic + organic compounds in body
Define cellular diversity + provide examples of cell types
Describe anatomy of cell
Discuss structure + function of plasma membrane
Physiology — study of body + how its parts work/function
Anatomy — structure of body
Structure (anatomy) determines what functions (physiology) can take
6 levels of organization:
1) Chemical level
2) Cellular level
3) Tissue level
4) Organ level
5) Organ system level
6) Organismal level
Internal environment (blood) is separated from external environment
However, organ systems can allow chemicals to move from external
environment to internal environment or vice versa
Homeostasis — despite living in an environment that is constantly
changing, the human body must have mechanisms to adapt and maintain a
stable internal environment
Disturbances in homeostasis can result in disease
A homeostatic control system has various elements: stimulus, receptor,
input, output and response
First step: a stimulus (produces a change in variable) that is detected by a
receptor. Info is sent along afferent pathway to control centre

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Control centre is responsible for determining set point, analyzing info +
determining an appropriate response
Information is then sent along efferent pathway to effector where response
is elicited
Afferent — carry signals to the brain and spinal cord
Efferent — send signals from the brain to the muscles, glands + organs
Homeostatic regulation — also referred to as feedback mechanisms
Negative + positive feedback mechanisms exist in body
Result of negative feedback — original stimulus is shut off/reduced in
Example: Imagine thermostat set to 20°C in house. During warm months,
temp. might rise inside house but because of set point on thermostat, it will
signal for air conditioner + bring the temp. back to 20°C. System will
constantly monitor temp. + if it deviates from set point, it will adjust
Positive feedback — increases original stimulus to push variable farther
This only occurs in blood clotting + during childbirth
Example: in childbirth, the hormone (which affects the cervix) will cause
it to dilate until baby is born

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Not all systems in body play a role in maintaining constancy of internal
Eg. testis + ovary (reproductive system) do not follow homeostatic
Homeostatic control — relies on constant monitoring of blood through
multiple sensory systems + responding to changes in blood composition
through multiple response systems
Physiology — study of organ systems that maintain homeostasis
Involves study of processes that organ systems use to carry out their
Basic Chemistry of Cells:
Majority of elements in body: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen + nitrogen
Elements — composed of atoms
When 2+ atoms bind together, they form a molecule of specific compound
Compounds — categorized as inorganic/organic depending on presence of
Important Inorganic Compounds:
Most important + abundant inorganic compound in body
Many vital properties — high heat capacity, polarity/solvent properties,
chemical reactivity + cushioning
Easily dissociate into ions in presence of water, vital to many body
functions, include electrolytes (which conduct electrical currents)
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