BIOL110 Lecture Notes - Articular Disk, Temporal Muscle, Palatine Uvula

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30 Jan 2013

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Basicranium and Pharynx
I. Basicranium
a. Bones
i. Occipital, temporals, sphenoid, vomer, palatines, & maxillae
ii. Also parts of parietals and zygomatics are visible
b. Foramina & Structures Passing through them
i. Incisive foramen—nasopalatine n., sphenopalatine a.
ii. Palatine Foramina—greater/lesser palatine nn. & vessels
iii. Foramen Ovale—CN V3 (and sometimes lesser petrosal n.)
iv. Foramen Lacerum—covered w/ cartilage; int. carotid passes superiorly;
jxn of occipital, sphenoid, and temporal bones
v. Foramen Spinosum—middle meningeal vessels; meningeal br. of CN V3
vi. Carotid Canal—internal carotids; carotid plexus (sympathetic)
vii. Jugular Foramen—CNs IX, X, XI, internal jugular veins
viii. Stylomastoid Foramen—CN VII
ix. Foramen Magnum—spinal cord, vertebral aa., spinal accessory nn.
x. Hypoglossal Canal (foramen)—CN XII
xi. Condylar Canal (fossa)—emissary vv. From sigmoid sinus; meningeal
br. of occipital a.; holes are variable
xii. Mastoid Foramina—emissary v. from sigmoid sinus; holes are variable
c. Other structures
i. Choane—mark boundary between nasal cavity and nasopharynx
ii. Medial/lateral pterygoid plates of sphenoid—insertion for pterygoid
mm. & tensor veli palatine
iii. Hamulus of medial ptergoid plate—pulley for tensor veli palatine
iv. Articular tubercle & mandibular fossa—form TMJ
v. Pharyngeal Tubercle—where pharynx attaches to occipital bone ant. to
foramen magnum
vi. Styloid process—3 muscles & 2 ligaments attach here
vii. Auditory tube & EAM
viii. Mastoid Processes—hollow and full of air cells
ix. Occipital condyles
x. External Occipital Protuberance—inion
II. Pharynx
a. Definition: a fibromuscular tube running from base of skull to inferior border of
cricoid cartilage
i. Common route for food and air
ii. Five layers: mucosa, submucosa, fibrous fascia (pharyngofacial fascia),
muscular layer, loose connective fascia (buccopharyngeal fascia)
b. Divisions
i. Nasopharynx—posterior extension of nasal cavity superior to soft palate;
1. extends from choanae (internal nares) to soft palate
2. contains pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids) & opening to auditory
tubes (pharygotympanic)
ii. Oropharynx—continuous with oral cavity
1. extends from soft palate to epiglottis
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