BIOL130 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Trisaccharide, Aldehyde, Triose

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6 Aug 2016
Macromolecules- Carbohydrates
1. General Features
a) 1:2:1 ‘carbon hydrates’
b) mono-, oligo- and polysaccharides, glycosidic bonds
2. Structural diversity of monomers – structural and stereo isomers, ring and linear structures,
triose-, pentose-, hexose-, aldo- and keto-sugars, anomeric carbon, a- and b-forms/linkages
3. Polysaccharide diversity– starch/glycogen, cellulose, chitin, peptidoglycan, functional
importance of different glycoside linkages
4. Comparison of glycoside, peptide and phosphodiester bonds
5. Carbohydrate function
Carbohydrates ‘Carbon-Hydrates’ (CHOs)
-Group of molecules that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio; general formula
eg. glucose C6H12O6 (CH2O)6
but sucrose is C12H22O11 ???
-mono saccharides - simple sugars
-monomer = monosaccharide
-dimer = disaccharide
-trimer = trisaccharide …. oligosaccharide
-oligo saccharides - (oligo = few) small chains
-attached to proteins - glycoproteins
-attached to lipids - glycolipids
-poly saccharides - very long sugar chains
Condensation Reaction – making the chain
Hydrolysis – breaking the chain
Typical Structural Features of Sugar Monomers
-carbonyl group (either ketone or aldehyde)
-lots of -OH groups
-Vary in length of carbon skeleton (C3, C5, C6, …)
-Isomeric forms (glucose, fructose, galactose)
Identical chemical groups arranged differently
Can be converted to a different sugar simply by switching the orientations of specific
-OH groups
-monosaccharides often form rings in solution
-aldose and ketose: structural isomers
both of these are ‘trioses’ (3 carbons)
Isomers – same atoms, different arrangements
Glucose, galactose, fructose
-Structural isomer – identical groups but bonded to different carbons
-Stereo (optical) isomer – identical groups bonded to same carbons but in different orientations
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