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University of Waterloo

Divisions of Philosophy1Epistemologywhat can you know2Metaphysicswhat is real3Ethicswhat should I do what should I be4Social Political Philosophyhow should I be governed5Aestheticswhat is beautifulThe SophistsSocratesRelativismno other perception but your own1 ProtagorasMan is the measure of all thingsYou can never see what another person seesoSeparated by time and spaceReality is too immense to seeCommunication is to vagueCodecdecode reality into 2 Gorgiassomething simpleThere is no realityEven if there is one you cant know itEven if you can know it you cant communicate it because you use wordsoDifferent takes on realityoEg Justice does it exist Athenian and Egyptian justice is so differentSocrateslearn universal not particular by functionsophists are lost on the inspection of particularshave to categorize by function argument used against Gorgiasbeauty is functionJustice what society believes actions deservePlatoTheory of KnowledgeCave AllegoryoPeople chained up must look at wall behind them is a fire with people making various shadows with items shadows become your reality awards for guessing the next persons items one person looks back gets free and understands reality other people kill him when he tells them go back to living previous lifestyleoPersonSocrates WallPerfect View of Life Chainspreconceived notions firedistortion of knowledgefake light people chainedeveryone awardssocietys distractionsUnexamined life not worth living examined lifewhat am I doing why am I doing thisDivided Line Theoryworld of formImagesartpoetryObjectsworldmathematicsitselfperfect knowledgeImagination opinion sophistsknowledgeillusionsForms are the perfect realityoIf no perfect beauty exists how can you compare judgeoIf you strip away at all particulars perfection must remainoForms give the copies on earth their shapePlatoView of Arttoo far removed from formsDifficulties oPerception eg Light differencesoPerceive the porcupine for paintingoWhat is my skill at paintingoPorcupine is not even form not perfect realityAt least 3 stages from reality and therefore knowledgePlatoViews of SoulsRepublic GovernmentSoulsPhilosopher KingRational Directed to knowledgeGuardiansArmySpiritWillSpirit follows strong part of the soulCraftsmenWorkersAppetiteshungersexdesireTwo Arguments for Republic1JustPeople get what they deserve based on talents2Efficientpeople do what they are good atPKNoble Lie Best blood PK philosopher king Guardianmixed with gold not based on birth but talentArmyMaster of the artCraftsmenJust Life ArgumentWhy you should be like Plato Philosopher1Body Pleasures are unlimited not satisfied Intellectual pleasures are limited can be satisfied2Intellect pleasure add to your beingBody pleasures make up for deficienciesBody pleasures only bring you back up to zeroIntellectual pleasures add 3Only philosopher can know both sides of1Critiques of Plato1SoulToo simple things can be rational and irrational In Platos mind it can only be one or the other2Just Life1 Some body pleasures can be satisfiedoSerenitywhen you have no desiresoIf 1 is not true then it is the human condition2If body pleasures make up for deficiences why go into excessobody pleasures can be additive bubble bath go beyond deficiencies3Contradiction if experience body pleasure appetite will go up and cannot be philosopherking therefore his argument about appetite is wrong4RepublicNot Just only philosopher king knows the form Therefore only philosopher king knows justice Therefore to everyone else unjustNot efficient ignores multitalented people Greatest resource of state is its citizens 5Doctrine of FormsIf no perfect form of mud why not6View of ArtDivided Line TheoryPlatos view of art holds up the divided line theoryAristotle oArt must deal directly with the form If forms is correct art must deal directly with themoTwo different pictures both mean same thing therefore art must be closer to form than form isoView of art holds up divided line theory therefore divided line theory wrongAristotle1 Background of Aristotleinvented logicsearching for a keytrue primary premiseArchaisyllogism where two truths can be combined to create a new truth
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