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Lecture

Chapter 22 The Respiratory System Anatomy.doc

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Department
Anatomy and Physiology
Course
ANP1105
Professor
Jacqueline Carnegie
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 22 The Respiratory Systemfunctions so supply the body with oxygen and dispose carbon dioxiderespiration involves1 Pulmonary Ventilationmovement of air into and out of the lungs so that gases there are continuously changed and refreshed ie breathing2 External Respirationmovement of oxygen from the lungs to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the lungs3 Transport of Respiratory Gasestransport of oxygen from the lungs to tissue cells of the bodytransport of carbon dioxide from the tissue cells to the lungsaccomplished by the cardiovascular system using blood as the transporting fluid4 Internal Respirationmovement of oxygen from blood to the tissue cellsmovement of carbon dioxide from tissue cells to the bloodthe first 2 functions are the specialty of the respiratory system and functions 3 and 4 involve the cardiovascular system Functional Anatomy of the Respiratory System respiratory system includes the nose nasal cavity paranasal sinuses the pharynx the larynx the trachea the bronchi and their smaller branches the lungs and alveolirespiratory system made up of 2 zones1 Conducting Zoneincludes all other respiratory passagewaysprovide rigid paths for air to reach the gas exchange sitescleanse humidify and warm incoming air 2 Respiratory Zonethe actual site of gas exchangecomposed of respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveolimicroscopic structures The Nose and Paranasal Sinuses the only externally visible part of the respiratory systemfunctions to1 provide and airway for respiration2 moisten and warm entering air3 filters and cleans inspired air4 serves as a resonating chamber for speech5 houses the olfactory receptors structures are divided into the external nose and the internal nasal cavitythe external nose includes the root area directly between eyebrow the bridge area under the root dorsum nasi the anterior margin running down the nose which terminates at the apex tip of the nose the philtrum shallow vertical groove above your lip and the nostrils external openings the skeletal framework of the external nose includes the nasal and frontal bones forming the bridge and root respectively the maxillary bones laterally and flexible plates of hyaline cartilage the alar and septal cartilages and the lateral processes of the septal cartilage noses vary in shape and size due to the differences in nasal cartilagethe skin covering the dorsal and lateral aspects are thin and contains many sebaceous glands the internal nasal cavity lies in and posterior to the external nose air enters the cavity by passing the nostrils or nares nasal cavity divided by the nasal septum nasal septum formed by the septal cartilage nasal cavity is continuous posteriorly with the nasal portion of the pharynx through the posterior nasal apertures or choanae roof is formed by the ethmoid and sphenoid bones of the skull floor is formed by the palate separates the nasal cavity and the oral cavityanterior palate made up of palatine bones and maxillary boneshard posterior palate is unsupported and muscularsoft the nasal vestibule just above the nostrils is lined with skin containing sebaceous and sweat glands and hair follicles hair follicles vibrissae filter coarse particles from inspired air the olfactory epithelium mucosa contains smell receptors the respiratory mucosa is pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium containing goblet cells and is richly supplied with mucous and serous glands mucous cells secrete mucous and serous cells secrete watery fluid containing enzymes
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