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CRM2305 (97)
Lecture 3

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Department
Criminology
Course
CRM2305
Professor
Carolyn Gordon
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 3­ Tuesday, January 22, 13 The Evolution of Policing • Police historians have developed a typology of policing from its inception to now as: • 1) The Political Era: Mid 1800­1920 • 2) The Legalistic/modernization Era: 1920­1960 • 3) The Service/Community Era: 1960: to date  • The Political Era: Mid 1830­1920 • Considerable political influence over policing • Little formal or official training for public police officers • Officers had a great deal of discretion • Order maintenance primary task • Police officers were often changed • Economic corruption • Early 19  century: leaders and professionals argued for a honest and efficient system  • The introduction of provincial policing system in ON and Quebec and NWMP to the parries,  growth of municipal policing • Very little political domination • Diverse role • Problem with this model?­ no formal training, corrupted recruitment, serve the interests or  elites or capitalists, politicians, people of power, it is not a service for people • The reform/Legalistic/Modernization Era: 1920­1960 • Professionalization and “expertise period” • A number of factors characterized by this period including: • The application of science: identifying suspects • Precise physical measurement • Description of distinguishing features • Photograph • Fingerprint  • Key Individuals: help the bureaucratization of police force • August Vollmer: developed police education programs, bicycle and automobile patrols, use  of forensic science • O.W Wilson: Police Administration (1977) • Technological changes: police patrol car, the two way radio and the telephone • Less contact between police and citizen • Reactive policing • Increase in crime and victimization report by citizen  • Professionalization and bureaucratization: • “Rationalizing” police command and control structure, in the form of strict  “bureaucratization” • Insulating the public police from public or political interference • Improving and standardizing training • Placing a greater emphasis on the law enforcement/cr
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