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HIS 3107 Religion and Culture, 1791-1840.pdf

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Religion and Culture, 1791-1840 October-01-13 4:03 PM Nationalism and identity • By the 1780s, it had become obvious to most Canadiens that the Conquest would be permanent ○ The turmoil of the American revolutions lead many people to conclude that the colonial bond to Britain would be broken ○ 1770s people think that it is possible that France would come back ○ In 1783 with the Treaty of Paris, that ends the American War of Independence, British take control of North America, some politicians were willing to let Quebec go but others wanted to keep it for economic reasons (fishery, fur trade) to prevent young America from becoming too powerful of a state ○ It is with this treaty that it is seen that the Conquest is permanent • The sense that a distinct people, the Canadiens, had emerged in the St. Lawrence Valley predates the Conquest ○ 1660-1680most French arrive in the area ○ Around 1700 the children of the people reach adulthood and then a real Canadian culture was born ○ Sense of being a distinct people is well emerged by the 18th century ○ Also shaped through the contact with First Nations, with the Iroquois, ○ Les Canadiens of the St. Lawrence Valley, considered themselves French, they spoke French, most people in France in this era do not speak French ○ In 1700 French is the language of Paris ○ Common language in the St. Lawrence valley becomes French ○ Even though the Canadiens consider themselves as being French they distinguish themselves from les Français (de France) ○ The French Canadian sense of uniqueness is born under the New France regime ○ Sharpened by the British Conquest and Protestant settlers • This sense of distinctiveness was sharpened by the British Conquest ○ No political debates in New France, these emerge with the British takeover, with the Loyalist ○ Parliamentary institutions along with the persistence of British institutions to assimilate the French make the sense of nationalism emerge • Nationalism is a political, cultural or economic doctrine that affords a primacy to the nation ○ Nations are important ○ Put nations, more importantly our nation as being the top nation ○ 1700 the sense of being unique emerges, by the 1800 the idea of nationalism emerges ○ This sense of being unique in New France is more sharpened by the fact that the Puritans are living not far away ○ Around 1800 the emergence of Nationalism ○ This idea was not anti-colonial, just as this day nationalism and separatism are separate ○ The leading exponents, including, Joseph Papineau, seen the Conquest as being beneficial, and appealed for French Canadian rights because they are British ○ Nationalism was viewed as a need to reform, not to separate Canada ○ This is the original nationalism • Rising political tensions fostered the crossing of nationalism with republicanism ○ This revolutionary discourse based on the soverenity of the people, the idea that the power should come from the people ○ It had experienced a ripple of support in the American Revolution ○ Now anti-colonial appeals question the very legimacy of the British form of government ○ In this view you cannot see that the King is King because he was not chosen by the people ○ By 1830s there is less talk about les Canadiens and more talk about le Peuple ○ Excluding French speaking reformist, and supports of the Château Clique, ○ Less you hear about the rights of the Canadiens and more about the rights of the Peuple ○ Patriot nationalism was politically intolerant, so that if you disagreed with it you were not part of the people ○ No political debates in New France, no newspapers, Political culture • Newspapers were an important vector of political debate ○ You could not openly debate in New France ○ Le Canadien = the first newspaper  Most important newspaper of the era  Le Parti Canadien's newspaper  Le Parti Canadien's newspaper • Elements of traditional French Canadian culture were mobilised to serve the Patriote cause ○ Home spun clothes were important ○ Do not buy clothing brought from abroad, ○ Act of patriotism to wear home spun clothes ○ The Charivari - traditional vector for community centers, triggeredby a marriage that is seen as being right, longstanding traditional from France, gets used towards political events, • The rebellions were confined to the District of Montreal ○ Fighting confined to this area ○ Trois-Rivière and Québec are not hit with much fighting ○ Divide in the political culture of the Canadiens ○ In the Quebec city region the British presence was lighter than in Montreal, lighter, more bureaucratic ○ British population of Quebec city was smaller, military people composed a bigger section of the English population, there was no social competition between French and British in this area, the political culture has long been given to compromise, and moderation ○ In Montreal the British population was more settled, and so impacted the society, merchant, a boss, social competition is larger in this area, political culture, radicalism, ○ With this not only affects the French speaking inhabitants but also the English speaking inhabitants ○ In 1837-1838,the revolutionary and anti-revolutionary violence was centered in the area of Montreal ○ Distinction between Montreal and Quebec is very apparent in the 19th century ○ By 1900 Quebec, is a industrializing society, once this happens the separation between Quebec and Montreal becomes much more intense, ○ The class tensions of Montreal have more over an ethnic dimension, ○ Historical tensions have been more intense in the Montreal regions The Roman Catholic Church • The Roman Catholic Church was Quebec's pre-eminent institution in the nineteenth century ○ It is responsible for most of the education, social services and health care, that were available at this time, ○ To a large extent these endeavors were seen as private, giving money to the Church to run these organisation ○ Only a handful of the French changed to Protestants (Anglicanism) after Conquest ○ The assimilation of the French was seen through the assimilation of the Church • Secularismwas on the rise at the turn of the nineteenth century ○ During this time, the clergy had problems with educating new priests, and recruiting more priests, most regions lacked a priest Situation was elevated a little during the French Revolution, when a few priests have been allowed to go to Quebec ○ ○ British enforce rules, Catholic orders were not allowed to recruit any new male priests ○ Except for during the French Revolution, British do not allow Priests to immigrate to Quebec • The British established the Anglican Church after Conquest The first Anglican bishop of Quebec, Jacob Mountain ○  Fought so that the Catholic bishop could not have any rights,  He said - only one bishop in Quebec and it is me  He is on the legislative council, not only of Lower Canada but also Upper Canada  Was part of the Château Clique  Most protestants in Quebec were Anglican at the time  The establishment of the Anglican Church was used to assimilate • The British sought to assimilate the Canadiens ○ The British did not view the as bad because the are French Speaking but because they followed the Roman Catholic religion, most British aristocrats were French ○ The British governs the Chanel Islands with no problem even thought they were French-speaking, without any problems because they switch to Anglican religions after the Conquest ○ Murray and Carelton, did not like the way that the French followed the clergy and the seigneurs ○ In the early 19th century, the British want to shut down the Catholic Church (some fast, others gradually) • British officials believed that they could govern Quebec with the collaboration of the clergy and the seigneurs ○ The clergy and seigneurs were loyal to Britain ○ The habitants of Quebec in large in 1810 did not hate the British but they did not like the way that the clergy and the seigneurs were so loyal to the British Crown ○ This makes a wedge between the habitant and the Church ○ By the 1830s the habitants have become alienated from the clergy, voices its loyalty to Britain and, the seigneurs, bringing up the rents • The Catholic Church had advocated loyalty and submissions to the British Crown since the Conquest ○ Monseigneur Jean-Olivier Briand, bishop of Quebec ○ Clerical leaders are arguing that the Conquest not only is here to st
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