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PHI1101 Chapter 8.docx

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Devin Shaw

Fallacies of Relevance 1) Appeal to Ignorance -the burden of proof is on the other person 2) Appeal to Inappropriate Authority -people base a decision on the authority on someone who doesn't have that authority -e.g.: making an argument because someone is famous -appeal to general belief and appeal to popular attitudes and emotions can be used interchangeably on the test -e.g.: "we all know" may appeal to general belief or appeal to popular attitudes -can just write Ad Populum 5) Gambler's Fallacy -engaged in by sports fans -e.g.: "someone hasn't scored a goal in a certain period of time, so he is due to score a goal" -not every example about gambling will be a gambler's fallacy Fallacies of Inadequate Evidence 1) False Cause -take 2 unconnected events and making a causal connection -superstitious thinking 2) Hasty Generalization -i.e.: inductive generalization -e.g.: making judgments on a small amount of people after meeting these small amount of people Fallacies of Illegitimate Assumption 1) False Dilemma -makes something that is not exclusive sound exclusive -e.g.: "you're either for us or against us" but you could be neutral / have no opinion -there are other options that the false dilemma masks and gets you to choose 2 options 2) Loaded Question -assumes information so that if you answer the question, in terms of yes or no, it assumes you have done something in the past 3) Begging the Question -"circular reasoning" 4) Slippery Slope -"small gradations or not much different from each other so there is no difference between 55 and 70" Fallacies of Criticism 1) Against the Person (Ad Hominem) -need to know latin name for this -don't need to know circumstantial ad hominem -attacking the general characteristic of the person 2) You Too -"you do the same thing" -doesn't say anything against the argument given -shows hypocrisy 3) Pooh-Pooh -dismisses the argument; doesn't attempt to confront the argument -makes the argument worthy of ridicule 4) Straw Man -repeat the argument that you are presented with but you present it in a fashion so that it is easy to 'knock over' -presents the argument in such a way so that it is easy to refute -reducing a complicated argument to a simplistic claim 5) Loaded Words -uses judgmental or emotionally charged words to try to convince you to dismiss an argumen
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