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Lecture 1

PSY 4327 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep, Sleep Spindle, Muscle Tone

Course Code
PSY 4327
Kathleen Biard

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Lecture 1 – Sleep Structure (January 15, 2016)
Stages of Sleep
Non-REM (eyes stay still) & REM (rapid eye movement)
oREM = dreaming, brain is very awake
oNR = restorative
NREM = N1, N2, N3
How Do We Measure Sleep in the Lab?
EEG – brainwaves
oREM looks like you’re awake when only looking at EEG
EOG – eye movements
EMG – muscle tone
oWhen asleep, muscles relax
oIn REM, muscle tone is very low
EKG/ECG – heart
Breathing: important because breathing problems might wake people up
o1) Airflow
o2) Effort: thoracic & abdominal
NREM Sleep
N1: lightest stage of sleep
oHypnic jerks/sleep starts, dozing
oTransitionary stage
oEyes might be closed, relaxed, might have muscle tone
oEx: on the bus, in the class
o5-10 mins
N2: sleep spindles & K complexes (patterns in sleep)
oProper sleep
N3 (formerly 3&4): deepest most physically restorative stage of sleep
oMore difficult to awaken from this stage
oDecreases with age
oBreathing regular, HR decreases
When eyes move, and you put electrodes near them, you catch electrical signals because
front of eyes has slight positive charge and back of eyes has slight negative charge
2 kinds of apneas: obstructive apnea (most common) – when throat falls close and
obstructs breathing - and central apnea (results in brain damage) – when you forget to
oObstructive when there is effort in the chest belt
oCentral when no movement in chest belt
Awake: alpha
N1: alpha disappears, slow rolling eye movements, muscle tone is calmed down
K complex caused by brain when something alerts you = spike of activity
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