SOC 2151 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Hazard Ratio, Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Epworth Sleepiness Scale

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10 Aug 2016
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Sleep & Dreams
Lecture Notes
Sleep Structure
What is sleep and how do we measure it?
Stages of sleep
Non-REM & REM
NREM = N1, N2, N3
……
EEG – brainwaves (central and occipital leads)
EOG – eye movements
EMG – muscle tone
EKG/ECG – heart
Breathing: 1) airflow 2) effort: thoratic & abdominal
Blood oxygen saturation (SaO2)
…….
NREM Sleep (non)
N1: lightest stage of sleep. (hypnic jerks/sleep/starts, dozing) (ex, on the bus)
N2: Sleep spindles & K complexes. A K complex is a spike of activity when there’s a
stimulus such as a noise or someone saying your name. Essentially your brain wakes you
thinking its something that should be noticed. Eyes go in large slow full circles. (ex,
napping)
N3: (formerly stages 3 & 4): deepest most physically restorative stage of sleep. More
difficult to waken from this stage. Deceases with age. Characterized by delta waves (big
EEG waves). Your brain shuts down some parts and electrons go into deep rhythms. (Its
called delta as the pattern forms triangles in the waves, similar to the Greek letter) (ex,
dead tired sleep). (When you’re sleep walking you’re usually in this stage)
Breathing regular, heart rate decreases.
REM Sleep
Rapid Eye Movements
Muscle atonia (paralysis) (most people don’t move in their REM sleep)
Dream recall is much better (excited to share your dream, for example)
90 minute latency
“Paradoxical Sleep” – EEG mimics wakefulness (which is why it is called paradoxical
sleep)
Breathing irregular, heart rate fluctuates
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When sleep goes wrong
If there is something the body is supposed to do, there is a condition where the body wont do it.
Apnea: breathing problems in sleep
Narcolepsy: REM on/off switch broken
Parasomnias: anything that happens while you sleep ro is related to sleep. Moving
around/doing things
Restless legs: really annoying
Bruxism: teeth grinding
Insomnia: being unable to fall asleep or stay asleep
Normal sleep variations
Outline:
Individual differences: short and long sleepers
Sleep deprivation
REM deprivation
Temperature changes
Stress and sleep
Long sleepers (LS) and short sleepers (SS)
Have been studied for 35 years
Hartman (1973): studied people switching from SS to LS depending on stress level
present. Lots of stress = LS, less stress=SS (like normals but exaggerated)
Webb (1975): could not duplicate Hartman’s findings.
Struss et Broughton (1978): partially supported Hartman’s findings
AESCHBACH ET AL. (1996, 2001, 2003): SS more tolerant to sleep deprivation than LS
KRIPKE ET AL. (2002, 2004): SS & LS are more at risk of dying younger than normals
Knutson et Al. (2010): Surveyed short sleepers in the USA from 1975 to 2006. The
reports of sleeping less than 6 hours per day increased in full-time workers only. As
compared to the past, full-time workers are now sleeping less and less (Sleep, Vol. 33,
No. 1, 2010)
(Its unhealthy to be on either end of the long/short term sleeper continuum. Its
measured using mortality. However sleep deprivation hits the LS more than the SS (?).
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