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SOC307-Lecture 2.docx

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Reza Barmaki

Lecture 2: Scientific Approach to the Understanding of the World July 12, 2012 Criminology -The scientific approach to the study of Social Control and deviance -Forms of behavior What is “Science”? -Methodical investigation-scientists focus more -Rule-bound: -Data collection -Hypothesis testing -Formulating theory -Etc. -Examples: Biology, physics, chemistry—have same assumptions about the world -Marine biologists-measurement observation is the common denominator -Scientific method followed everywhere-under the water -Anthropology-they are observing so it is considered a science -Instruments of measurement What are other approaches? Religious Approach (Pre-scientific/unscientific) -premises of all religions: A-there are supernatural forces beyond ordinary human powers (demons, gods, angels, spirits…) B-control/intervene natural and social processes C-this can be direct or indirect through humans or animals D-some for good and some for bad (evil) The First Murder: Cain kills Abel -Why human commit evil acts (crime)? 1. Influenced by “evil” forces 2. Their own nature: -Wicked (sinful) -Weak (easily tempted) GOOD forces & acts: positive results -harmony, order, normality, happiness, enlightenment, peace of mind, salvation… EVIL forces & acts: negative results -disorder, chaos, unhappiness, darkness, abnormality, suffering, damnation, punishment Various forms of Punishment -By God(s): -Hell -Plague -By Humans: -excommunication -burning at the stake Polytheism -Many gods and/or goddesses -have different powers -control different spheres -examples: Ancient Greece and Rome Monotheism -One god -All knowing -omnipotent -omnipresent -Abrahamic: -Judaism -Christianity -Islam Middle Ages Europe (Christianity) -crime/deviance caused by: -possessed/influenced by witches/demons -all for work for Satan Demonology -A branch of theology -Study of malevolent superhuman beings -Demons or beliefs about them -How they influence humans to act -Punishment for such acts Burning at the Stake -Ultimate punishment -By humans Trial by Ordeal -Method of determining guilt/innocence -Accused was asked to perform painful and/or impossible tasks -Innocent: -if task was completed without injury or the injuries sustained were healed -ex: put hand in boiling hot water pot -premise: -god/gods intervene to help the innocent -miracle, divine intervention Ducking Stool -Determining witchcraft -if they floated: -were helped by demons -they were witches -hanged, burned at stake -if they drowned: -not guilty -too late to save them Trial by battle -reserved for noblemen (rich people) accused of wrongdoing -accused had to combat the accuser -or pay for a fighter on his behalf -winner was innocent -god protected innocent -loser was often dead by the end of the fight Are these true? Are they verifiable? -Do not ask questions about the ways of God -God works in mysterious ways -Gods reasoning is beyond human understanding Science -
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