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Reza Barmaki

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Crime and Delinquency: SOC307
Lecture Two: January 12 2011
Scientific Approach to the World
Sociologist and Criminologist want to understand both the social and natural world.
Within sociology there is a scientific way to understand the world.
Criminology is the scientific approach to the study of crime and deviance.
Crime is a form of human behaviour
Criminology is based on different forms of human behaviours.
There are both good and bad types of human behaviours.
Example: Sexual behaviour, deviant behaviour, ect.
Methodic Investigation: you follow a method when conducting science.
A number of procedures are followed in order to carry out
the investigation.
You go from point A to point B to point C.
Rule- Bound: Certain rules must be followed…
1. Data Collection
2. Hypotheses Testing
3. Formulating Theory, ect.
(These all have rule-bounds that need to be followed).
Example: Biology, physics, chemistry.
The method which is followed, makes something scientific in nature
Science is about MEASUREMENT
Other ways to Approach Phenomenas
1. Religious Approach ( Pre-scientific/unscientific)
Humans have tried to use religion as a way to explain everything.
Premises of all religions
Assumption one: There are supernatural forces beyond ordinary human
powers (demons, gods, angels, spirts…)
Assumption Two: These supernatural forces try to intervene In both natural and
social processes.
Assumption Three: The control of these supernatural forces could be direct and
indirect on humans and animals.
Assumption Four: Some of the supernatural forces are for good actions and
some are for bad(evil) actions.
** Some people claim that some of our crimes and deviance comes
from evil supernatural forces**

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Crime and Delinquency: SOC307
Lecture Two: January 12 2011
Example: The First Murder—Cain Kills Abel
Why do human beings commit evil acts (crime)?
Religion claims that humans are influences by evil forces.
Religion claims that Good forces leads to positive results.
God is the one who is behind the good forces, it leads to…
1. Harmony
2. Order
3. Normality
4. Happiness
5. Enlightenment, salvation.
Religion claims that EVIL forces leads to negative results
Satan is behind the evil forces
1. Chaos
2. Disorder
3. Unhappiness
4. Darkness
5. Abnormality.
For many decades within early years people thought that religion was the only way to explain
Means many Gods/goddesses
Have different powers
Control different spheres
Ancient Greece and Rome
People thought that if someone killed another, it was because they were under the influence
of a different God.
One God
Abrahamic: Judaism, Christianty, Islam.
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