Class Notes (835,574)
Canada (509,252)
BIOA01H3 (687)
Lecture

genetics.docx

5 Pages
69 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
Professor
Mark Fitzpatrick
Semester
Winter

Description
Genetics DNA: Molecule found in Nucleus: Deoxyribonucleic Acid Structure: Double Helix, Twisted Ladder, Coiled in Chromosomes Function: To contain all of the instructions for life DNA inside chromosomes, inside the nuclei of the cell Structure: Deoxyribose: Sugar molecule Phosphate: w/ sugar makes backbone of ladder Nitrogenous Base: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine -Adenine + Thymine are purine: 2 rings -Guanine and Cytosine are purimidines: 1 ring Nucleotide: Phosphate + Deoxyribose + Nitrogenous base pair Base Pairs: Pairs of nitrogenous bases, always pairs AT and CG Gene: segment of DNA that encodes instructions for Protein RNA retrieves instructions from DNA and takes it out to make protein DNA twists on itself -> twists with Histone (beads) -> histones twist to make chromatid Chromosomes -Each human has 46 chromosomes -23 pairs in total -1 pair sex chromosomes (that define your sex, male XX, female XY) -22 pairs of autosomes (not sex chromosomes) -Each pair is homologous – same instructions but different messages -Not all living things have the same number of chromosomes Centromere: middle region of chromosome, attracts spindle fibers N: Haploid: # of unique chromosomes -> human is 23 2N: Diploid: # of total chromosomes Chromosome -> (before mitosis, copies in S phase) -> called “Sister Chromatids” when centromere is added Homologs: single chromosomes that are similar but not the same to another homolog Homologous Pairs: pairs of homologs after criss crossing that are ready for anaphase Cell Division Cell Division: Making new cells Mitosis: Occurs only in Somatic Cells -Daughter cell identical to parent cell Purpose: GROWTH, REPAIR, and REPLACE/REPRODUCTION Mitosis part of cell cycle Cell Cycle: 2 stages (Growth, and Division) growth being the longest Interphase: to increase volume and mass -G1: growth prepare to synthesize. Option to synthesize or rest phase -S (Synthesis) Phase: DNA duplication -G2 Phase: growth and prepare to divide. Chromosome made into 2 Sister chromatids held with centromere. Prophase: Chromatin condenses and becomes visible -Nuclear membrane breaks down -Begin to migrate to opposite poles, and held with spindle fibres Metaphase: Middle -Spindle Fibers attach chromosome and puts them on the equatorial plate -Sister chromatids face opposite poles Anaphase: Apart -Centromere splits -Sister chromatids pulled by spindle fibers Telophase: two -Nuclear membrane forms around each set of chromatids -Spindle fibers gone -Chromatids de condenses to chromatin. Chromatin = chromosome Cytokinesis: Occurs at the end. -cytoplasm divides into 2 through a pinching process -In plants, cell wall divides cell in half Meiosis: to mak
More Less

Related notes for BIOA01H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit