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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mary Olaveson

LECTURE 9 How do vertebrates maintain salt and water balance? o Major excretory organism is the kidney for vertebrates o Within the kidney the actual functional unit is called the nephron Marine Animals- Bony Fishes o Most marine invertebrates are osmoconformers: bodily fluids are adjusted or react and to similar conditions animals find theirselves in the environments o Most marine vertebratessome invertebrates are osmoregulators: actively adjusting their solute situations to deal with water issues and therefore maybe maintaining conditions within their cells and bodily fluids that are different than their external environments o Marine bony fishes: bodily fluids and intracellular conditions are hypoosmotic to sea water: more water, more dilute...issue of losing water from tissues to outside environment and they can become dehydrated o Solution: taking in water when feeding and salts from marine water. So they need to try to retain their water and get rid of excess salts...they can get rid of salts across their gills and can adjust water loss across their gills and across other parts of their body surfaces because those are parts that are going to lose water to the external environment o Few glomeruli: less blood being brought to the kidneys for exchange and urin tends to be more concentrated than that of fresh water fish because theyre trying to hold the water not lose it to the external environment o Nitrogenous waste (ammonia) can be get rid of through gills as well Freshwater Animals- Bony Fishes o Their bodily fluids and internal cellular conditions are more concentrated than their external environment so theyre hypo-osmotic to their environment so consequently theyre going to be taking up water from a dilute external environment o Theyre taking up water and ions from their food, and salt through gills, and taking in water across gills and other bodily surfaces because the water
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