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Bio B11 L21 C15 Signal Transduction I.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Dan Riggs

Bio B11 L21 C15 Signal Transduction I Fig 15-1: Autocrine (a) Paracrine (b) and endocrine (c) types of intercellular signalling. Extracellular messengers can travel a short distance and stimulate cells that are in close proximity to the origin of the message, or they can travel throughout the body, potentially stimulating cells that are far away from the source. Autocrine Signalling (a): The cell that is producing the messenger expresses receptors on its surface that can respond to that messenger. Thus cells releasing the message will stimulate (or inhibit) themselves. Paracrine Signalling (b): messenger molecules travel only short distances through the extracellular space to cells that are in close proximity to the cell that is generating the message. Paracrine messenger molecules are usually limited in their ability to travel around the body because they are inherently unstable or they are degraded by enzymes, or they bind to the extracellular matrix. Endocrine Signalling (c): Messenger molecules reach their target cells via passage through the bloodstream. Endocrine messengers are also called hormones, ad they typically act on target cells located at distant sites in the body. Fig 15-2: An overview of the major signalling pathways b
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