lec 14

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Biological Sciences
Patrick Mc Gowan

Lecture 14 C14 y Essentially in terms of trying to identity variants in genetic sequences that contribute to disorders affecting cognition the more common a variant of a gene is in the population the more easily it is detectedy There are very few common variants that have big affects Small affects of many genes rather than large effects of few genes y If there is below 5 of a allele occurrence it is difficult to identify traits that are associated with them Because of the way the studies are run you need a big sample of people y although there is a lot of evidence from certain conditions that there is high heritability there can be cases where no genes have been identified that positively contribute to the effects missing heritability y Really rare variabilies have small effects and they contribute together to the complex traitdisorder but its very difficult to pick them out because they occur so infrequently y Schrizophrenia o Its a group of psychiatric disorders that present with similar features Its a combination of symptons Two individuals that are Schrizophrenic may have different symptons but they share certain categories of dysfunctionMain categoriesPositive Something evident measurable and presentNegative lack of something People have difficulty initiating movement Cognitive deficits impairements in attention executive functionability to reason working memorythings you just learned this is disruptedexample someone just gave you a number but you forgotSchizophrenia means separate mindsdisorganized thoughts not necessarily meaning multiple personalitiesthats something separateLike every other disorder that is a complex mental disorder many genes are supposed to be involved with the traits Which genes they are can vary in the populationS is generally similar from place to place country to countryquite universal in the human family it is so profound but only 1 It was though to be completely untreatable S people are not just people in institution homeless people Deinstituitionalizationpeople can fall off the wagon easily and become homelessThere are some sex differencesnot in terms of the number of effectedindibidual but the timing that you see the disorder Male 1825 Females30Huge social costGraph hospitalization based on sex and age group At which age where they presenting the sympotonsLots of interest in understanding SHaloperidolaffects dopamine systems Affected people with S there was a reduction in positive symptons Haloperidol is a dopamine receptor antagonist It blocks the dopamine 2 receptors Tis is a clinical drug that showed some positive
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