BGYB30H3 Lecture 21 Notes Reproduction and Development-Nov 24

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

BGYB30H3 Lecture 21 Notes -normal growth requires N Sex hormones N Insulin and insulin growth factors N Growth hormones N thyroid hormone N diet (nutrients such as calcium) N genetics -cortisol has catabolic effects on growth by increased calcium in the blood -peak growth occurs during teenage years -nutrients, circadian rhythms and other hormones stimulate growth hormone -growth hormone that binds to binding protein in the blood increases its half life in the blood to prevent excretion in urine -growth rate is determined by amount of GH binding protein in the blood -growth hormone stimulates release of insulin like growth factors from the liver, which negatively feedback on GH -IGF and GH cause N bone and soft tissue growth N increased protein synthesis N cartilage growth N breakdown of glycogen and triglycerides -dwarfism is less common now due to medications and is caused by inhibiting of bone growth -giantism is caused by excess bone growth -acromegaly is caused by excess soft tissue and cartilage growth in adults and is progressive -growth hormone causes both hyperplasia (cell division increase) and hypertrophy (increased cell size) -bone growth requires sex hormones, IGFs, GH, TH and calcium -calcium is stored as a calcium phosphate crystal -the bone is dynamic in that it is constantly being formed and broken down even after bone lengthening ceases -bone contains compact bone layer for strength and spongy trabecular bone layer that is less solid -osteoblasts are bone forming cells that produce enzymes and osteoids -osteoclasts dissolve bone to release calcium by releasing acid and enzymes -epiphysis is the end of the bone while the shaft of the bone is the diaphysis -epiphysial plate is where bone growth occurs because osteoblasts are found there -diaphysis is where bone diameter increases -chondrocyt
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