EESA06H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Seafloor Spreading, Himalayas, Subduction

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8 Aug 2016
Lecture 2
- Continental drift: - Idea that continents move around
- German man named Wegener, but nobody believed him because he didn’t
have a mechanism
- Pangaea means “all the lands”
- Geologists used the term “Laurentia” to refer to NA in ancient past
- Plate tectonics: Idea that plates underneath were moving
- Geostropic…: What’s under the ocean. Waves bounce back
Slide 36:
- Belts of same age
- Example: Coal. Need warm temperatures. Salt: Marine sediments, evaporation, and warm climate
Slide 37:
- Also showed fossil remains of same species in different continents. They can’t swim, so continental
drift occurred.
Slide 38: Ice sheets are the normal for Toronto. We’re in warming period.
Slide 39: Ice sheets of same age were in different parts of earth
Slide 41:
- Ocean floor is not flat
- Iceland’s mid ocean ridge can be walked on because it’s not as deep as other ocean floor
Slide 43:
- Submarines were made and sent them down
- Discovered underwater volcanoes
- They’re active… We just don’t see them
- Hot water in mid ocean ridges scavenge minerals from rocks, even though they’re low in amounts.
Scavenge and concentrate them
- These mid ocean ridges pushed together and upward when they collided with other continents. What
was once under water rose up
Slide 47: Deep ocean earthquakes show us where subduction zones are
Slide 48:
- Canada is in a mid plate position
- Himalayas are from Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates being shoved together
Slide 49: Earthquakes identify plate boundaries
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