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Lecture 8

GGRB05H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Multiculturalism In Canada, Gardiner Expressway, Gentrification

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Denisse Macaraig

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GGRB05 Lecture 8
Urban Communities, Space and Place
- Readings: Chapter 15, 17 and 18
- Why Public vs. Private spaces matters
Urban Space
- Employment
- Consumption
- Residential
- Transportation
- But what is public or private?
City Planning: History
- City planning developed as a way to manage urban change in the industrialized city
- City of “dreadful night”
- Idea of cities as places of disease (such as typhoid epidemics), filth, degrading natural areas,
expanding slums, political strife, violence, etc.
- People began moving from rural to the city in the 19th and early-20th century
- Public has to play a role if they are the ones who have a vested interested
- Some movements such as Ebenezer Howard’s “Garden City” was seen as a solution
- Government intervention seen as an answer
- Manage the commons
Beaux-Arts Architecture
- An example of governments playing a role, giving people a reason to take care of their cities,
take part in a civil way
- Neoclassical architecture style taught at Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris
- The idea that you can build beautiful environments, structures, etc., there was civic pride
- Influenced the City Beautiful Movement
City Beautiful Movement
- A reform movement in N.A urban planning and architecture (Late-19th and Early-20th century)
- The built environment matters
- People’s perception of their environment fosters positive behaviour
- Something that is warm, welcoming, comfortable, good lighting, etc.
- Beauty not just for any reason, but for the common good
- Beautiful parks, buildings, etc., also called the “White City” for its white pillared buildings
Ex. Union station is a white pillared building

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- This was all a response to cities being scary places, gave people a sense of pride, built upon
“Garden City” movement
- There came a time when the US attempted to identify and distinguish itself
- Grand buildings and fountains built around park
- Shallow pools of water, centered with central buildings
- Grand boulevards and parkways
- White-pillared buildings (“White City”)
Ex. Washington D.C
Urban Spaces and Places
- Space and Place from a geographic point of view
- Yi Fu Tuan Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience (1977)
- Ted Relph Place and Placelessness (1976)
- Some spaces can be placeless, generic areas, with little to no meanings and connections
to one’s own psyche
Urban Communities
- Space is everywhere, many definitions
- It comes to existence when humans give meaning to space and further and delineate
Ex. Calling a place “home”
- People then become attached to certain places
- Can be physical, abstract, or both
- Home, space, and place are not static, they are continuously evolving
- Space and place is contingent on various factors
- The idea of the “city” is not just parks, factories, etc. it’s what people perceive it to be,
therefore it has different meanings for all citizens
Public vs. Private Space
- Why does this really matter?
- Why should we care about spaces in the City?
Public Goods
- In a city, there are things that everyone needs
Ex. Roads, bridges, streetlights, recreation centres, parks, pools, hospitals, etc.
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