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Lecture 3

Week 3 Lecture Note


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGRC02H3
Professor
Elrick
Lecture
3

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Professor will put a study guide online by beginning of next week for midterm exam
Content of midterm exam consists of all sessions prior to midterm exam
Essay due on March 2nd
Week 3 Fertility causes poverty, right?
Population growth is determined by three factors: fertility rate, mortality rate, and
net immigration
Net immigration = immigration emigration
oIf positive, then would have net immigration
Fertility patterns 2006
Total fertility rate = number of children per woman who is in the age that she could
get children
Total fertility rate = sum of fertility rate of every woman from usually 15-50
Different fertility rates mean you have different population growth given that the
mortality rate and net immigration is not accounted for
Total fertility rate of 2.1 is usually considered to be the replacement fertility
Replacement fertility = population of a certain area keeps at the level at the moment
Usually, 2.1 children per woman, can be up to 3.3 in areas where mortality rate is
higher such as Africa
Everything above this rate means population growth, everything below this rate
means population decline
A fertility rate of about 2.5 means that the population doubles in about 60 years
A fertility rate of about 3.5 means that the population doubles in about 30 years
Population pyramids 1994
Three patterns of population change
oRapid growth: Kenya
High fertility rates
Usually more younger generation
50% of population is 15 years of age or younger
oSlow growth: United States
Amount of young people in US, Canada, or Germany, are much
smaller than in countries like Kenya, Nigeria, or Uganda
Baby boomers caused the bump in the middle of the graph, was caused
by numerous children born after the war, and was before contraceptive
period
There were more baby boomers in US than in Germany because were
more prosperous
Also because US got far more immigrants who came from countries
that had higher fertility rates
Fertility rate for US is 2.1 means that they are sustaining their
population
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Canadas fertility rate is 1.9 which means a declining population
growth
oNegative growth: Germany
Fertility in US & Canada over time
Baby boom and declined afterbirths caused by improvement of contraceptive
measures in the US and Canada
Fertility rates started to differ between Canada and US in after 1980
Caused by immigration in US, but Canada also had immigration...why the difference
then?
oImmigrants in Canada have a different idea than US counterparts because
have different groups of immigrants coming to US and Canada
oUS gets its immigrants from middle America and South America, and
Canada gets its immigrants from India and China especially, so the ideas
that the immigrants bring to the countries are different
oAlso because of education, people who have higher education usually dont
have more children
Determinants of variation in fertility fertility is dependent on:
oAvailability of contraceptives
oAge of marriage due to cultural practice
oAbortion
oCost of raising a child related to cultural practice
Is one of economic dimension
oCultural practice
oEducation might influence the age of marriage and use of contraceptives
and abortion
More educated people marry later, and therefore get children later in
their lives
Is one of social dimension
Demographers say the following determinants:
oProposition of marriages or sexual relationships because marriage for quite a
long time was a prerequisite for sexual intercourse, however after, marriage
was not necessary before having a child
Has to do with other cultural practices like whether the use of
contraceptives is okay for the members of the group, or whether they
dont want to use contraceptives
oProportion of successful use of contraceptives have to be available and
properly used
Is different in different parts of the world
In industrialized countries, contraceptives are used to prevent
children right away
In developing countries, contraceptives are still used to end the
children after the optimal number of children reached
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