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Lecture 9

Lecture 9

Course Code
Neville Panthaki

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- background up until 1890
- represented in different ways (connection, date, related)
Phase 2: attempt to break deadlock
- longest period to break 'strategy'
- Napoleon conflict (last time powers all went to war) - moving battles
- diverting attention of conflict elsewhere
Gallipoli (April 25, 1915 - January 1916)
- attempt to knock out Ottoman Turks
- second period of conflict
- war of attrition
-- force a decision (causing diplomatic problem that may lead to peace table talks)
- 6 landings before actually got on shore (last 2 made it), ½ lost (8000)
- through Medittarean onto beach - get through beach & mountains/hills
- Turks look down and have free range of fire
- Turks hold cliffs, Brits hold beach -- dig into the beach
- 8 ½ months, still on the beach because impossible to get to cliffs
- water + dampness Æ malaria and typhoid
- allied retreat, 250 000 dead trying to get on to the boats
- trench warfare = how you win, overcome the trenches
* innovations (airplane, gas, tanks) to overcome trench warfare
Verdun: strategy attrition (February - December 1916)
- German had own version of attrition strategy
- Falkenhayn decides on Verdun - strategically on the road to Paris
- if Verdun falls, Paris is open
- strong fort, point of French pride (used by Napoleon)
- Falkenhayn does not want to win the battle - wants to have 3:1 French/German death
ratio - wants to bleed French army to death - less in next battle
- French will hold Verdun at all costs
- 'shell shock' -- psychological trauma from attrition
- 9 hour barrage, firing density of 850 guns (artillery pieces) over 8 miles
- whole French army rotated - Verdun/Paris (shell shocked) to stop entire army from
- psychology is now an aspect of terror
- French as British to do something to help
Æ Somme: strategy breakthrough (July - November 1916)
- draw German pressure up north and take it off French
- replicate what Germans did to break through to Germany
- Haig (acceptable loss/casualties) - disclaimer that 'in winning, we may have to suffer _____'
- Haig is given political objective to take the pressure off of Verdun
- 30 mile front, 'artillery softening'
- at first, 6 mile advance before Germans repatch 'hole'
- to open up hole, launches a cavalry charge (created 'mush' and cannot be used/go
* have to fall back and nothing is achieved
- beat trenches by 'running them down' - thought that at least few will get through
* 5000 man (wave) attack became the norm
* acceptable loss: 1000 to 2000 (rest are suffering, shell shocked, injured, etc)
* versus 'machine gun nets' [2500 yards depth, 500 yards width, 250 rounds per minute]
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