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Lecture 16

Lecture 16

Course Code
Neville Panthaki

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British India (administered a subcontinent as a single colony)
- India (~1600-1858) ruled by British East India Company as 'commercial enterprise'
similar to Husdon's Bay Company
South - Madras, 1639
West - Bombay, 1661 ('presidency' - administrative capital centres)
East - Calcutta, 1696
- ruled on the periphery as they were trading - began to work inland
- Mutiny 1857 (in North) brought a halt to the rule by company/ direct rule to 1947
Æ West Pakistan (1947)
Æ East Pakistan Æ Bangladesh (1972)
- grouped diverse peoples together under a single authority/customary law
* expanded to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) by Madras presidency from 1795-1798
Æ became crown colony separate from India (1798-1948) - Sri Lanka (1948)
* Burma annexed to India (1826-1886)
- became part of the colony, separated as crown colony Burma (1937-1948)
- Myanmar (1989)
- different in terms of size, diversity, British desire to rule
- attempt to impose French-like solution to create a single administration over a diverse
- tried to impose singularity by language (English)
James Stuart Mill vs. Thomas Macaulay
- Vernacular languages - uniformity of English
* education is a system of propaganda (in order for it to work, has to be uniform, stressing
basis, medium of instruction/transferring ideas)
* cultural connotations within languages - make them subordinate to culture/
- utilitarian point of view (good for the most) imperial power
- mass education - elite education
Æ bottom-up transformation (empowerment, social - top-down filtered (limited amount
transformation at grassroots level while retaining of schools to "PUI YEUNG" elites to
cultural identity to allow them to progress/evolve) have reform top down filtered)
- attempt to reconcile Indian custom to British - wanted to replace Indian customs
practice with British law
- stress continuity AND evolution (less threatening) - break with the past
Æ evolutionary process
-- generally all colonial intellectuals/third world developers/elites all felt a sort of 'not
being here, not being there' schitzo personality, separated in virtue of class, education but
part of imperial structure
Direct Rule 1857-1947
- failure, but a success in carrying ideas of nationalism rather than regionalism
- first time that various diverse elements of different parts of the North continent unified for
a single cause
1. British were using more and more colonial troops - causing social problems within India
2. evolutions in musketry and gunpowder evolved into a shortened process/self-contained
(cartridge/bullet -- but grease was made from animal fat - enraged Muslims and Hindus)
- also caused unity of different soldiers of colonial forces
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