Lecture notes week 4

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2 Jan 2011

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Collapse of the Concert/Congress Crimean War (1853 1856)
x France, Britain, Austria, Ottoman Empire vs. Russia
x jingoism over restraintan appeal intended to arose patriotic emotions (jingoism)
x domestic concerns dictate—aggressive foreign policy
x Russia was removed from European stability equation
x European nations pursue own self-interest over collective interest—result of Crimean War
x exercise of conflict option rather than diplomacy—led to First World War—conflict is now acceptable
1. instead of trying to stop war, war was made a part of diplomacy
x emergence of two nations by force—Italy and Germanyprior to this there had been no Italy, but instead some Italian
states; and there had been no unified Germany, there had been Prussia and other German areas
2. Italian and German unification through many wars and the last two were against the same enemies—Austria and
France—the war dates were in 1848, 1859 – 1865, 1866—Italy and Germany versus Austria, 1870—Italy and
Germany versus France
3. Bismarck says—“war as politics by other means”—taken from Casitas
4. this became a dictum in German policies after the Crimean War
x aims of Bismarck:
1. make Prussia strong inGermany
2. make Germany strong and maintain it in Europe
3. preserve and strengthen the monarchical-conservative order
x what Bismarck creates is destroyed after the First World War—the German Empire
x Bismarck is not revolutionary in terms of Marx, but in terms of autocratic and diplomacy
x Bismarck’s German is similar to Russia—he wants a German united under Prussia
x Step 1: destroy ‘oldbalance of powerpolicy of war
o 1864: Germany vs. Denmark (consolidate)—by way Germany is united
o 1866: Germany vs. Austria (regional)—about who is going to be regional power of day
o 1870: Germany vs. France (great power)—inaugurates Germany as a great power
x Step 2: maintain ‘new’ status quo—policy is peace and preservation
o 1871-1890—Bismarck embarks on pure diplomacy—longest period of European peace, replacing Metternich
o in 1890, Bismarck is fired by King as Chancellor
o it is German policy that tries to keep the peace and the demise
x Bismarckian System 1870 1890
o “All revolutionaries, once in power become conservatives…rocks of the new order…Bismarck became
Metternich—all revolutionaries are only revolutionaries until they are out of power, the moment they get
power, they become status quo—nothing different about Bismarck and Metternich, after gaining power,
Bismarck wanted the same things as Metternich
o made by war, preserved through peace
o prevent European backlashnew power in Europe—themes of policies of Bismarck
divide to maintain—divide rest of European powers to maintain power
lock all players to Germany—lock all European powers to Germany so they can’t fight
control the game—hold all conferences in Germany under Bismarck because if Bismarck is not in control
of the game, then the fallout could effect Germany
Bismarckian System German Diplomacy 1871 – 1890
x 3 on (vs.) 2 Alliance System—Germany, Austria, Russia, Great Britain, France
o before there were only 4 great powers, but now Germany is added
o in a 3 on 2 situation, Germany will want to be tied to two different powers, so that the war is always in
Germany’s favour
o there were be a division in Europe
o first point of diplomacy is to ensure that Germany is always in a bundle of three (Bismarckian Math)
x isolate France
o France is out for revenge as it won’t link to Germany
o if there is ever a war, France will always be against Germany, therefore try and isolate France
x maintain Austrian empire
o right below Germany is Austria, and Italy is just below Austria—which is why they are called the Central
Powers in the First World War
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o Austria is a Slavic, German, and Latin combined country
o if Austria collapsed, then several smaller countries would arise based on language, culture, etc
x keep Russia on side (no 2-front war)
o Bismarck prevents Russia from befriending France and the other way around as well
x defend status quo (social)
o Bismarck is very, very conservative
o Germany is first country to inaugurate EI, women’s rights, welfare, male suffrage, and other social rights
o Germany might have done to promote nationalism, to gain trust of population, solidarity, to prevent revolutions
o to defeat left-wing policies, by stealing some of their ideas, the population has no reason to revolt
x prevent or localize conflict
o first, try and diffuse conflict by policy if there is going to be conflict
o Bismarck hated conflict as Metternich did
o if the conflict is going to occur, to localize it and prevent it as much as possible
x every single treaty should have all the above ideas in it, which creates problems
x some problems are:
o complexity (web)
o duplicity (everyone’s friend)
Bismarck tries to be everyone’s friends, especially his alliesAustria and Russia
o contradictory (antagonism of allies)
Russia and Austria hate each other so they cant be allies
o entanglement (Balkans)
Germany starts to get entangled in the Balkans because of their allies
o stop-gap solution (problems increase)
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