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Lecture 5

Lecture notes week 5


Department
History
Course Code
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki
Lecture
5

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Midterm Exam
x Dates, events, peoples’ names, conflicts, systems
x More important ones, taken up in tutorial readings, highlighted in readings, etc.
x At least 15 choices, and need to write on 3 of them
x Monroe Doctrine, Bismarckian System, Alfred Mahan, Holy Alliance, Africa (person’s name, colony, specific date),
Concert of Europe, 1914, 1870, Marcus Garvey
x choices from the readings as well, mainly the Meridian readings
x 1870
o third war of German unification, Prussia against France
o it established Germany as a European power
o monumental that they were able to defeat the strongest power of the day (France)
o aspects of the peace term with France, which created problems for Germany and led Bismarck to create system
o Germany had begun to go through the second industrial revolution, which favoured it
o re-established balance of power under Bismarck as old balance of power was destroyed after war
x Marcus Garvey
o black man from Jamaica
o civil rights leader born in Jamaica, who wanted black men to be sent to Africa because they won’t get
independence in America
o set up two organizations
o joined the independence movement in slavery
x Bismarckian System (1870 – 1890)
o a new balance of power for Europe created by Bismarck
o architect for German unification, and destroyed old balance of power, so had to create new
o themes of the system
allies with Russia and Austria—to be with majority
prevent 2-front war
isolate France because of the consequences of the last war
prevent or localize conflict so it would not spread to the rest of Europe and ruin the balance of power
o lasted as long as Bismarck was in office and then began to unravel
Phases/Periodization: (Western Front WWI)
x August – November 1914
o first few months of conflict
o German attempt to quick victory
German military and economic planners know that they are going to lose
they know this because they have the military and economic plans right in front of them
have great strategy to achieve quick victory because it has to be so
they cannot fight the general type of conflict that European armies have been fighting up to know because
they know that they do not have the sources to win in long-term war
Schlieffen Plan
o French/British stop-line
this is a stop-line where Germans are stopped in tracks and that is where trench lines are drawn until 1918
because the trench lines are not moving, the battles occur at the main location
1st Battle on the Marne River
consequently, there was the 1st Battle of Ypres
x November 1914 March 1918
o mainly because the Germans have not been able to win
o Allied attempt to evict Germans
the entire second phase is the French and British attempts to overcome the enemy trenches
2nd Battle of Ypres
Battles of Verdun
Battles of Somme
3rd Battle of Ypres (Vimy Ridge, Passchendaele)—Vimy Ridge is ridge and Passchendaele is hill
o some of the most gruesome battles have occurred in this phase because nothing was overcome from them
o consequence of trench warfare and an attempt to force some sort of decision by attrition strategy
x March November 1918
o German re-organize their front lines, how they fight, and their front lines because in 1917 Russia dropped out of
the war due to the Russian Revolution
www.notesolution.com
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