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History (700)
Lecture

Lecture notes week 9


Department
History
Course Code
HISB31H3
Professor
Neville Panthaki

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x Burma, Nepal, and Sri Lanka were all ruled as part of India
x most of India was ruled under direct rule to the British, but there were parts that were ruled under Rajahs, who were
influenced and affiliated themselves with the British
x the heartlands of the British rule was the Deccan areas between the ports of Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta
Indian National Congress (1885)
x inaugurated in 1885 and the Indian political party that emerged
x the Indian National Congress was considered a sell-out now because of the way they started out and formed
o however, any movement has to start first with a political movement, and then only can a cultural movement
actually take place Æ culture cannot exist without power
x direct British rule fostered a sense of disdain against the Indian culture and a developing Indian national movement
x influenced the model for various other colonial organizations
x Gandhi was responsible for African national congress, called Indian-African National Congress
x transformation identity Æ unity expression
o the first thing that the Indian National Congress had to do was define what it meant to be Indian
o while there were cultures and India existed as a cultural expression, but India did not exist as a national
expression Æ it existed in various other ways, including British colony expression
o therefore, the Indian National Congress had to create an Indian expression
o this meant from regional Æ national and particularistic Æ patriotic
o this meant that a person had to stop seeing themselves as just a culture, but as an Indian
o each region had to stop thinking of themselves, and understand that they are connected to other regions
o each culture (Punjabi, Muslim, Rajasthani, etc.) had to stop thinking of themselves as separate and to think of
themselves as an Indian above all Æ this is probably the least common denominator and least important
o there is a process of trying to make this least common denominator the most common denominator
x dialogue with the Raj
o they had to form a political conversation with the British colonialists (the Raj)
o they had to let the Raj know that they represented the complete Indian community
o used British methods/structures (law, courts, legality) Æ theory into practice
o the first thing was not against the Raj, but for the system in place in India
o legal framework to change Æ the Congress attempts to change the legal framework based on British practices
x coalition of interests and secular
o the Congress has to create a coalition of interests of all religions
o in this way, it becomes secular Æ in that, they embrace all religions and that no religion is above another
o either, the Congress can be secular or they can lean towards one religion, but if they lean towards one religion,
then it will cause a fallout with the other religions
o this means that the Congress has to be multi-religious and all-embracing
o the Congress represents everyone from elites, religions, castes, and lingual/ethno groups
x inspiration Æ fourth aspect of Congress
o it had to create a direction in the minds of future leaders
o in that, the Congress was influenced by many people in history
Garibaldi (Young Italy) Æ inspired Congress to realize the “nation Æ Garibaldi led many of the
movements that brought Italy its independence
Sinn Fein (Ireland) Æ home rule/independence Æ direct comparison to another British colony, but most
importantly a “white” colony
Lenin (Soviet Union) Æ secular, socialist, multicultural Æ as of 1905, things like the worker strikes and
the overthrow of the tsarist government in 1917 were big influences
Fabians (British constitutional/democratic/social movement) Æ legality, gradualism Æ the British
movement by the Fabians also influenced the Congress for things like non-violent movements
x these four things were the things that led to the Congress inauguration
x however, Gandhi does not take rule of the Congress until 1912
Mohandas K. Gandhi (Mahatma”)
x from 1885 to 1911, the Congress was pursuing political independence to the Raj
x Gandhi moved that from the political movement to the cultural and inclusive movement
x Gandhis notions were different from Lenin and Sinn Feins movement
x he wanted passive resistance (which was influenced by Tolstoy)
o in War and Peace, Tolstoy talked about the Russians, but near the end he shows his disdain against the violence
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