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HISA04H3 (101)
Lecture 10

HISA04 - Lecture 10.docx

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Department
History
Course
HISA04H3
Professor
Camille Begin
Semester
Summer

Description
HISA04 – World History I Lecture 10 African Great Lakes Region- Rwanda from Colonization to Genocide - Rwanda – no access to the sea - Great Lakes of Africa – surrounded by Republic democratic of Congo (formerly Zaire), Tanzania, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda (which are all modern political entities) - The borders established do not necessarily reflect human geography - Establishment of modern political borders led to the hardening of ethnic identity o had to live with imperialism after the world war - Legacy of colonization = an important factor in the genocide in the 1990s - Genocide = mass murder - Hutu majority turned against the Tutsi minority in Rwanda Rwanda - Land of a thousand hills - Highlands, hills, and mountains - Economic activity: agriculture (for family and extended family), tea plantation - Had one of the densest populations in the world putting pressure on the land - Population was divided: 90% Hutu, 10% Tutsi, 1% Twa o Tutsi = higher class, Hutu = low class - Names of the groups existed before the arrival of the Europeans - Initial difference between the groups was social, not ethnic - Difference was hardened during the colonial period Colonization - After 1750 (the first sudden wave of colonization by the Spanish and Portuguese) o The focus was on Asia, Middle East, Africa and Pacific the in the 2 wave of colonization (By the British, French, Germans, Italians, Belgians, and Dutch) - Imperialism and colonization o Motivation was economic o As technology developed, there was a demand for rubber o Raw materials were found in Africa or Asia  With the increase of the industrial revolution, raw materials were needed o Europeans needed markets to sell their products and an investment opportunity with profit o Between 1750 and 1950 – the empire and empire building was the main solution for the raw materials, market and investment o Location was key o The British had relatively straight line through Africa to secure stopovers in voyages to India o Colonies were important markets for European goods o Economic motivation was key for these colonies Science, Empire building and Nationalism - Another cause/motivation of Colonization - Social-Darwinism o Led to the misuse of Darwin`s work o People used his work to explain the human societies and the diversity of the human species, which created a hierarchy of racism o Says that nature`s law is that the weak should perish and the strong should take over (which is not Darwin`s theory) o All spaces of life descend from an ancestry and are processed through natural selection o In relation to colonization – had a profound influence on how Europeans viewed global expansion  There was a sense of mission  Civilizing mission  Mission to civilize weaker races  Strong push to convert people to Christianity  Catholics and Protestants were important elements of the colonization process  Work discipline and production for the market – taught the Natives how to work properly  Introduced European clothing and healthcare  Motion made imperial aggression seem natural and progressive; like a good thing  Threatens nationalism: In order to be considered a superior nation – had to have an empire Imperialism - 1850 Africa - the French were in Algeria and there were European settlements on the coast - Up until 1880, only 10% of Africa was controlled by colonial powers - The Scramble for Africa o The British and French wanted different regions of Africa - The Fachoda incident o Liberia and Ethiopia never colonized o Battle where cotton, oil, diamond, copper, and rubber were the main interests o Materials were motivation for colonization - Nation that lacked centralized power was the hardest to defeat as there was no central king to negotiate with - Europeans had superior weapons (especially firearms) - Divided Africa into different humanities based on the civilization ground - Impacted population socially and economically - Europeans seized land to start mining and to make plantations after their arrival - There was a massive migration of natives (Africans) who had to leave their land after the Europeans’ arrival o Living and working conditions were extremely bad Colonization in Rwanda - Rwanda was largely free of European influence for a long time - Tutsis were the leader before colonization - Tutsis established autocratic rule of the country, they were the centralized power - After colonization, the king was still important - 1894: Germany gained control of Rwanda as part of East German Africa o Germans chose to be indirect rulers of the land; they left the king to rule on their behalf o At the end of WWI the German colonies were divided up amongst the winners o Belgium gained some control - 1919: Rwanda became a mandate territory of the League of Nations under the administration of Belgium o Belgium favoured the Tutsis over the Hutus, they left most of their authority - Germans rationalized difference between Tutsis and Hutus based on the race theory of social Darwinism o Belgium had people choose their ethnicity in a census, if they could not choose, they were assigned  White/European features = tutsi  Tutsis were considered superior, they were allowed access to higher education and in turn they held most of the government positions  There was overrepresentation in places of power – the population was only 10% Tutsi, but they held the majority in political positions (80%)  Dark, short = Hutu o System was kept after independence o Hutus had to carry an identification card – a tool that would allow the Hutus to carry out the genocide o Colony policies can shape life after colonization o After WWII –
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