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Lecture notes week 9

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Neville Panthaki

N Burma, Nepal, and Sri Lanka were all ruled as part of India N most of India was ruled under direct rule to the British, but there were parts that were ruled under Rajahs, who were influenced and affiliated themselves with the British N the heartlands of the British rule was the Deccan areas between the ports of Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta Indian National Congress (1885) N inaugurated in 1885 and the Indian political party that emerged N the Indian National Congress was considered a sell-out now because of the way they started out and formed o however, any movement has to start first with a political movement, and then only can a cultural movement actually take place culture cannot exist without power N direct British rule fostered a sense of disdain against the Indian culture and a developing Indian national movement N influenced the model for various other colonial organizations N Gandhi was responsible for African national congress, called Indian-African National Congress N transformation identity unity expression o the first thing that the Indian National Congress had to do was define what it meant to be Indian o while there were cultures and India existed as a cultural expression, but India did not exist as a national expression it existed in various other ways, including British colony expression o therefore, the Indian National Congress had to create an Indian expression o this meant from regional national and particularistic patriotic o this meant that a person had to stop seeing themselves as just a culture, but as an Indian o each region had to stop thinking of themselves, and understand that they are connected to other regions o each culture (Punjabi, Muslim, Rajasthani, etc.) had to stop thinking of themselves as separate and to think of themselves as an Indian above all this is probably the least common denominator and least important o there is a process of trying to make this least common denominator the most common denominator N dialogue with the Raj o they had to form a political conversation with the British colonialists (the Raj) o they had to let the Raj know that they represented the complete Indian community o used British methodsstructures (law, courts, legality) theory into practice o the first thing was not against the Raj, but for the system in place in India o legal framework to change the Congress attempts to change the legal framework based on British practices N coalition of interests and secular o the Congress has to create a coalition of interests of all religions o in this way, it becomes secular in that, they embrace all religions and that no religion is above another o either, the Congress can be secular or they can lean towards one religion, but if they lean towards one religion, then it will cause a fallout with the other religions o this means that the Congress has to be multi-religious and all-embracing o the Congress represents everyone from elites, religions, castes, and lingualethno groups N inspiration fourth aspect of Congress o it had to create a direction in the minds of future leaders o in that, the Congress was influenced by many people in history Garibaldi (Young Italy) inspired Congress to realize the nation Garibaldi led many of the movements that brought Italy its independence Sinn Fein (Ireland) home ruleindependence direct comparison to another British colony, but most importantly a white colony Lenin (Soviet Union) secular, socialist, multicultural as of 1905, things like the worker strikes and the overthrow of the tsarist government in 1917 were big influences Fabians (British constitutionaldemocraticsocial movement) legality, gradualism the British movement by the Fabians also influenced the Congress for things like non-violent movements N these four things were the things that led to the Congress inauguration N however, Gandhi does not take rule of the Congress until 1912 Mohandas K. Gandhi (Mahatma) N from 1885 to 1911, the Congress was pursuing political independence to the Raj N Gandhi moved that from the political movement to the cultural and inclusive movement N Gandhis notions were different from Lenin and Sinn Feins movement N he wanted passive resistance (which was influenced by Tolstoy) o in War and Peace, Tolstoy talked about the Russians, but near the end he shows his disdain against the violence
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