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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 notes

Health Studies
Course Code
Caroline Barakat

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Lecture 3: Models of Health and
HLATA10- Models of Health and Illness January 24th,
Readings: 13-25 text
PHAC (2009), sections 4.2 - 6
What is Health? What is illness?
How do we conceptualize health?
WHO- 1948- the directing and coordinating health authority within UN health
oResponsible for several things (on slide)
oMain body where we look to find a universal definition of health
oHealth matters and health research and applies them to recommend policies
to countries
oDefinition of health: has not been changed since 1948
oState of complete physical mental and social well being and not merely the
absence of disease or infirmity
oState is something that is changing all the time
oHealth is continuously changing, not just physical, but mental and social
oNot just being absent of disease
1.Original model of health
oAbsence of disease
oIf there is something to be diagnosed
oBiomed model of health
oSees the body as a machine that something might go wrong and if we can fix that
the person becomes healthy again
oRepair/replace to gain health
oNo recognition of the subjective experience f illness or disease
oPsychological experiences are not a cause of disease; illness may cause
disturbances but are not caused by these disturbances
oEmphasis is on scientific method- objectivity- measurement
New Models of Health
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oas knowledge increased and new findings became available, developed health as
not simply as the absence of disease- other components are involved
oSocial contexts- we need to know where people are living, exposures- bio to social
2. social models of health or systems model of health
oThere are other factors that play a role in dictating whether a person is healthy
oWHO 1986-health involves social, political, cultural and economic factors
oComplex interplay of many different factors, moving away from biological model to a
systems or social model approach
oThese changes are relevant because:
its important for health research all together as the mandates
evolve; fields of research; research becomes more interdisciplinary
Has relevance for healthcare professionals, not just looking at
specific etiologies; roles change in discharge and treatment
Therefore research and healthcare professionals evolve for better
care overall
Distinction between disease and illness
-illness is a subjective feeling; one would feel
-disease refers to a condition where the body or parts of body dont work; medical reason
for diagnosis; pathological reason; objective measure
-a)high cholesterol person; can be diagnosed- but that person feels completely ok, there
is a disease but no illness
-b)chronic back pain person- person feels a lot of pain, but there is no disease or
pathological, medical reason to give a diagnosis
3.Bio-psychosocial Model of health and illness
o1977 introduced in medicine
oSocial, psych, and bio factors that interact and impact health
oIe. Stress, genetic disposition, social supports
oBroad factors interplay in all 3 umbrellas of social, psych, and bio
VIDEO bio-psychosocial model of health youtube
Dr. Craig- Canadian institute for the relief of pain and disability application of BPS in
terms of managing chronic pain
-emergence of BPS
-increasingly widely accepted that one needs to understand bio roots but also its psych
impact and social factors that relate to it
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