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HLTB15H3 (95)
Lecture

LEC 4 NOTES

5 Pages
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Department
Health Studies
Course Code
HLTB15H3
Professor
Caroline Barakat

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Social factors and health
Social class - arrangements of people in society as economic groups
Socio-economic status - societal status using factors or measurements such as
income levels
How are they classified
-standard occupational classification , based on aggregation of occupations in terms of
similarity of qualification, training, skills and experiences associated with the performance
of their constituent work tasks
-education, wealth, income and (un)employment status, as well as occupation (de bruin)
Main Perspectives
Social causation hypothesis factors associated with socio-economic status influence
health
Selection hypothesis life course perspective
What about psychosocial stress?
-defined as a heightened mind body reaction to fear or anxiety-arousing stimuli (e.g illness)
-stress as the product of the persons capacity for self control and include theories of self
efficacy , hardness and mastery
-stress defined in relation to the biological response of the individual to the social
environment acting upon him or her. (brunner and marmot)
-several measuerment scales to measure amount of stress from divorce, marriage moving
house and son on
-most psychological approaches to the measurement of stress are quantitative
Coping Crisis theory
-coping refers to the cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage internal and external
demands of the stressful situation.
-coping with diagnosis and style of coping with the illess(shock, helplessness and despair,
denial)
www.notesolution.com
-coping style it one hypothesised mediating style . Mediating factors relevant to coping
incluce personality, material resources and social support
-most recent stress research is based on the model of cognitive appraisal developed by
lazarus and folkman.
-consists of primary appraisal, secondary appraisal and reappraisal.
-Crisis theory, the impact of disruption on the individual, has been applied to coping
abilities.
-theory holds that individuals strive towards homeostasis and equilibrium, and
therefore crises are self limiting
-Three types of coping skills: appraisal-focused coping, problem-focused coping and emotion
focused coping
-Theory of planned behavior it is not the disability that predicts what one can do, but ones
attitude towards it
-intention is the most important antecedent or behavior and is influenced by subjective
norms, attitudes, expectations of future health and ability, self-efficacy and preceived
control over situation.
What helps in coping?
social support affects health by protecting the person against the negative impact of stress
-main effect hypothesis- social support is beneficial and reduces impact of the stressor and
its absence acts as a stressor
-social capital-community social supprt networks and resources
Social interactionism versus symbolic interactionism?
social interactionists critical of the concept of adjustment, in which people with illnesses are
encouraged to aept themselbes as normal
-adjustment a form of social control
Interactionist
-demographic and psychological variables explain a relativiely small percentage of peoples
behaviour and attitudes
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Social factors and health Social class - arrangements of people in society as economic groups Socio-economic status - societal status using factors or measurements such as income levels How are they classified -standard occupational classification , based on aggregation of occupations in terms of similarity of qualification, training, skills and experiences associated with the performance of their constituent work tasks -education, wealth, income and (un)employment status, as well as occupation (de bruin) Main Perspectives Social causation hypothesis factors associated with socio-economic status influence health Selection hypothesis life course perspective What about psychosocial stress? -defined as a heightened mind body reaction to fear or anxiety-arousing stimuli (e.g illness) -stress as the product of the persons capacity for self control and include theories of self efficacy , hardness and mastery -stress defined in relation to the biological response of the individual to the social environment acting upon him or her. (brunner and marmot) -several measuerment scales to measure amount of stress from divorce, marriage moving house and son on -most psychological approaches to the measurement of stress are quantitative Coping Crisis theory -coping refers to the cognitive and behavioural efforts to manage internal and external demands of the stressful situation. -coping with diagnosis and style of coping with the illess(shock, helplessness and despair, denial) www.notesolution.com
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