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Anna Walsh (54)

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Health Studies
Anna Walsh

Chapter 10 Stress Coping and HealthStress is a major pathway through which psychosocial factors affect physiology and the aging processThroughtheNeuroendocrinesystempsychosocialstresscanhaveadverseeffectsonthe cardiovascular and immune systemsOlder adults may be vulnerable to the effects of physical stressEvidence that stress can toughen or strengthenus through heat shock proteins and social tiesGenetic based mechanisms that protect against stress at the cellular level DNA repair mechanisms antioxidants and heat shock proteins StressThree different major ways to describe stress 1 Stress as a Physiological State Classic TheoriesCannon 1915 was the first physiologist to systematically describe the physiological effects of stressHe noted that cats exposed to barking dogs would respond with a rush of epinephrine or adrenaline into their systems Stress activates the hypothalamus which readies organism for fight or flightSNS reacts to stress in two ways 1 Originates in the spinal column preganglionic nerves secrete acetylecholine and radiate to the target organs postganglionic nerves use norephinephrine 2In sympatheticadrenal medulla SAM nerves radiate to adrenal medulla which secretes epinephrine adrenaline and norepinephrine noadrenaline into blood stimulates organ muscles and blood vesselsEpinephrine increases metabolic rate more powerfulNorepinephrine stimulates the peripheral vascular systemraises blood pressureSympathetic activation can cause piloerection responsePNS brings the body back to homeostasis after stressOver activation of SNS can result state of shockCan cause blood level to get so low that cardiac arrest occursPorcine stress syndrome pigs die simply from stress of being transported Prolonged increases in blood pressure and blood clotting would eventually result in hypertension and cardiovascular disease SELYE1 HypothalamussecretscorticotrophinreleasinghormoneCHAactivates pituatary which activates ACTHwhich activates corticosteroids such asglucocorticoids and mineral corticoidsPituitary releases adrenocorticotropin hormone ACTH into blood streamCannonfightflight reaction could have very harmful effects if prolongedGlucocorticoids are fatsoluble molecules which enables them to cross cell membranes in every organ system2 dualistic processes 1 ALARM fightflight 2 ADAPTATION use to stressor 3 EXHAUSTION tiredModern TheoriesBoth Cannon and Seyle argued that there are general responses to stress but it is now widely recognized that there are individual differences in stress reactionsFrom a psychosocial perspective studies investigating the effect of stress on sympathetic arousal including heart rate respiratory rate and galvanic skin response a measure of the degree to which the electrical conductance of the skin is affected by sweating consistently found individual differences in the patterning of sympathetic arousalIn addition it is now recognized that activation of the HPA axis is an attempt to buffer the rather damaging influence of prolonged SNS activation SNS activates immune system responses encouraging inflammation HPA slower changeactivation suppresses the immuneinflammatory responseIn addition we now know that most if not all of the endocrine hormones are affected by stress increasing or decreasing in fairly complex temporal patterns
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