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Lecture 2

Lecture 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Chandan Narayan

Lecture 2: Phonetics 5/15/2012 3:03:00 PM  Exam type question:  b is to g as p is to ? o t o m o k o r o n o p is to K; b is voiced and p is voiceless but similar placing; g is voiced and k is the voicelss but similar placing  phonetics will be heavy on exams  phonetics phone (sound in Greek) +-etic (having property of sound)  ―having he property of sound  major areas of phonetics: o articulatory phonetics o acoustic phonetics: deals with the physics of speech (eg. how air moves) o auditory phonetics:  slide 2:  graphical representation of the waveform of the word ―ban‖  Reading not considered language!  There are certain cultures where they have rich language where nothing is written down and so no reading is involved, but language exists  just a representation We hear things that are not really there:  We don’t isolate each of the sounds of a words; it goes in a flow o Eg. for ban we don’t hear it ba-ah-nn but rather as ―ban‖ o really hard to segment things o == overlap co-articulation  while mouth is closed for b, tongue is already is in place for the a sound  Acoustic waveform for same word for different people is completely different, yet we still hear it as the same word (eg. on slide, the two graphs are for ban)  Edward sapir : collective phonetic illusion:  we can extract the core essence of what someone is saying even though it may sound different  animals not capable of decomposing speech like humans can  how to standardize the way we describe speech sounds?  chief and chef both borrowed from French when Ch was pronounced differently at two different periods  Phonetic alphabets:  used as a way to characterized sound types  Henry Higgins character name based on Henry Sweet:  IPA – international phonetic alphabet  Letters may look like English alphabets BUT no English o Eg. j looking character does not have the ―juh‖ sound but rather it has a Y sound(?)  Responsible for the IPA sounds for English  Major vocal organs:  sagittal section: the cross-section of the human head  major vocal section contained in head and neck  most external voc
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