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MGHB02H3 Lecture Notes - Motivation, Peter Salovey, Work Motivation

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Anna Nagy

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Organizational Behaviour: Chapter 5—Theories of Work Motivation
Why Study Motivation:
b/c of need to increase productivity to be globally competitive
result of rapid changes to contemporary organizations
requirements for flexibility and attention to customers that necessitate higher
levels of initiative
initiative depends on motivation!
Motivational theories must:
oRecognize human diversity and consider that same conditions will not
motivate everyone
oExplain why some people are self motivated while others need external
oRecognize social aspect of human beings motivation affected by how
ppl see others being treated
Motivation: extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
Basic Characteristics of Motivation
Effort: -- strength of a person’s work-related behaviour
-- amount of effort person exhibits on the job
Persistence: -- persistence that individuals exhibit in applying effort to their work
- ex. researcher who makes discovery early in career and then does nothing for
5 years not persistent
Direction: quality of work— workers should channel persistence in direction that
benefits organization
-Correct decisions (stockbroker advises clients instead of playing comp.
games) increase probability that persistent effort is turns into organizational
-Working smart as well as hard
Goals: motivated behaviour has some goal or objective to which it’s directed
- may include high productivity, good attendance, creative decisions
-can also be motivated by goals contrary to organizational goals
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
motivated by factors in external environment or be self motivated
intrinsic motivation: direct relationship between worker and task: usually
self applied
ofeelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, competence
and interest in job itself
extrinsic motivation: work environment external to the task,
administered by someone other than person being motivated
oincludes pay, fringe benefits, various forms of supervision
some motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities
Conclusion of studies show availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce
intrinsic motivation stemming from task itself
When extrinsic rewards depend on performance, then motivating potential
of intrinsic rewards decreases
If extrinsic rewards on contingent on performance makes individual feel less
competent and in control of behaviour

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oBecause they start to believe that performance is controlled by
environment and they only perform well b/c of the money
oThis is easily avoidable and only occurs in limited situations
oWorkers will see reward as sign of success and will try to increase
performance to get reward in future
Both types are important and compatible in enhancing work
Motivation and Performance
Important distinction b/w motivation and performance
Performance: extent to which an organizational member contributes to
achieving the objectives of the organization
Motivation contributes to performance—but not 1:1 relationship
Intelligence, personality traits and core self-evaluations also predict job
Two main types of intelligence:
oGeneral Cognitive Ability
Refers to a person’s basic information processing capacities and
cognitive resources
Verbal, numerical, spatial and reasoning abilities
Measured by specific aptitude tests
Predicts learning and training success as well as job performance
Applicable to both manual and mental tasks but is a better
predictor for more complex and higher-level jobs
Cognitive ability and motivation are essential to career success
oEmotional Intelligence
Ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in
thought, understand and reason about emotions and manage
emotions in oneself and others
Able to identify and recognize meanings of emotions to manage
and regulate them as a basis for problem solving, reasoning,
thinking and action
Peter Salovey and John Mayer 1st to coin the term!
Introduced 4 sequential steps
1. Perception of Emotions: perceive and identify emotions of
oneself and others using facial expressions and nonverbal
2. Integration and Assimilation of Emotions: use and
assimilate emotions and emotional experiences to guide and
facilitate in one’s thinking and reasoning
Involves shifting one’s emotions and generating new one’s
to see things in different ways and perspectives
Use emotions in functional ways: making decisions, other
cognitive processes (creativity, integrative thinking etc)
3. Knowledge and Understanding of Emotions: understand
emotional info, determinants and consequences of emotions and
how they evolve and change over time
Different situations and events generate emotions as well
as how they and others are influenced by various emotions
4. Management of Emotions: manage one’s emotions and
those of others as well as emotional relationships

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Must master previous stages
Able to regulate, adjust, and change his or her own
emotions as well as others to suit the situation
Ex. stay calm when feeling angry, excite and enthuse
others, lower someone’s anger
EI has been shown to predict performance, incl. job and academic performance
Strongly related to jobs that require high levels of EI (cops, customer service reps)
HOWEVER some say, no relation or inconsistent b/w EI and job performance
Possible for performance to be low even when person is highly
oCould be due to poor understanding, or luck/chance factors
oOpposite is also true, someone w/ high understanding and
intelligences (general and EI) can perform well w/o high
Motivational interventions, such as linking pay to performance will not work if
employees are deficient in important skills and abilities
What is Employee Engagement?
Disengagement is on the rise in Canada: 17% highly engaged, 66% moderate,
17% disengaged
Involves some degree of effort but is concerned with how individuals
perform jobs rather than how motivated they are to do them
William Kahn: If disengaged remove true selves from role: withdraw and
defend themselves physically, cognitively or emotionally
2 important components of engagement: ATTENTION AND
oAttention: amount of time one spends thinking about role
oAbsorption: being engrossed in a role and intensity of one’s focus in
Kahn found 3 psychological conditions that contribute to
oPsych. Meaningfulness: incentives for engagement: return on
investment, feel worthwhile, valued, useful, not taken for granted
oPsych. Safety: employ and express themselves w/o fear of neg.
consequences to self image, status or career
oPsych. Availability: have physical, emotional, cognitive resources
required to be engaged
one study found: businesses w/ high engagement had higher
profitability, productivity, customer satisfaction, lower turnover
Need Theories of Work Motivation:
Needs Behaviour Incentives and Goals
need theories: concerned with what motivates workers (needs, associated
incentives or goals
process theories: concerned with how various factors motivate ppl
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:
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