NROB60 LEC09 LeBout Summer 2012

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HIPPOCAMPUS
FINAL EXAM
- same format as before: short answer, multiple choice, matching
[2]
LECTURE OUTLINE
- INTRODUCTION
- CYTOARCHITECTURE
- LEARNING AND MEMORY
- MALFUNCTION (of HC)
- TRISYNAPTIC PATHWAY (of HC)
[3]
WHAT IS HIPPOCAMPUS?
- hippo = horse, kampos = sea monster
- relating the sea horse resemblance to this structure
- area in brain w/ greatest plasticity
=> this structure is susceptible to physiological changes due to changes in any
of the following:
- behav
- envirnmt
- neural processes
- other areas of NS
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================
Retrieved from Wikipedia: plasticity
Neuroplasticity refers to the susceptibility to physiological changes to this region of NS, due to
changes in behavior, environment, neural processes, or parts of the body other than the nervous
system.[1]
================
- large involvement in learning & mem
- particular role: being able to encode new info to create LTM (long term
memories)
- declarative memory aka long-term memory
WARNING!
- NOT involved in:
- a) PROCEDURAL MEMORY = is memory for how to do things
- b) SHORT-TERM MEMORY = aka working memory; this sys actively
carries info in mind to do verbal & non-verbal tasks (ex. reasoning, understanding), and
to make this info available for further info processing.
[3]
WHAT IS HIPPOCAMPUS SUSCEPTIBLE TO?
HC
- is one of first brain areas to show dmg in AD
=> area where clinicians first notice changes
- high seizure susceptibility
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- lowest seizure threshold in brain
=> not only does it have high vulnerability, but also lowest threshold (easy for seizure
to originate here)
- prone to effects of:
- 1. ISCHEMIA = restriction in blood supply to tissues, caused by shortage of
O2 & glucose req. for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive)
- 2. HYPOXIA = body is deprived of enough O2 supply
=> detrimental to aerobic orgsms (ex. humans)
=> unless it gets constant O2 supply from blood flow, will see dmg to it
- needs to have constant O2, blood or else will see dmg
[5]
LOCALIZATION AND ORGANIZATION OF HC AND DENTATE GYRUS
----
- hippocampal formation = compound structure in the medial temporal lobe of
the brain.
- currently no consensus concerning which brain regions are encompassed by the term,
with some authors defining it as the dentate gyrus, the hippocampus proper and
the subiculum;[1] and others including also the presubiculum, parasubiculum,
and entorhinal cortex.[2]
----
- NROB60 says that hippocampal formation is includes these structures:
- dentate gyrus
- 3 neuron layers: molecular, granular, polymorphic
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Document Summary

Same format as before: short answer, multiple choice, matching. Hippo = horse, kampos = sea monster. Relating the sea horse resemblance to this structure. => this structure is susceptible to physiological changes due to changes in any of the following: Neuroplasticity refers to the susceptibility to physiological changes to this region of ns, due to changes in behavior, environment, neural processes, or parts of the body other than the nervous system. Particular role: being able to encode new info to create ltm (long term memories) A) procedural memory = is memory for how to do things. B) short-term memory = aka working memory; this sys actively carries info in mind to do verbal & non-verbal tasks (ex. reasoning, understanding), and to make this info available for further info processing. Is one of first brain areas to show dmg in ad. => not only does it have high vulnerability, but also lowest threshold (easy for seizure to originate here)

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