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8 Feb 2011
School
Department
Course
Philosophy
Week 6 lecture 1 & 2
Alternative Hypothesis
Philip Gosse’s Hypothesis
God created the world a short time ago with all the evidence of an old earth and evolution already took place
Compare: can we show that the hypothesis that the universe was created 5 min ago?
Predictively Equivalent- two hypothesis that lead to the same conclusion
-science cant tell them apart by testing
-remember the conditions of plausibility
The Limits of Science
Scientific explanation is a regress of deeper facts
-local vs. global question
-global questions do not seem to have any underlying structure which could explain them
-according to Leibniz, god can explain global facts
-but aren’t we left with a super global question
-why god & universe
Priori – can be known simply by use of concepts and without any experience or observations (posteriori)
A priori truth and Existence
some a priori truth entail existence
how do a priori existence claim affect the question: why is there something rather than nothing
ana priori existence claims ensures that question
Two Distinctions
-a priori / a posteriori
-necessary / contingent
Necessary Contingent
A Priori 2+4=6The word green applies to
green things
A Posteriori Water= H2O Saturn has 56 moons
Green can mean something else
H20- must observe but is necessary
Saturn 56 moons- must observe
First premises: god is possible
-noted this is an objective claim
-we can conceive or imagine what is not possible
-ex. Traveling faster than light
Grades of Possibility
-logical
-nomological
www.notesolution.com
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-metaphysical
Second Premise: existence is a kind of perfection
-Galileo counter example
-The perfect island must exist
-If it did not we could conceiver of one more perfect which is impossible
Kent’s classic reply
-existence is not a perfectional property
-properties hold or don’t hold of existing things
-existence is the pre-conditions for having properties, not a property itself
-is that conclusive?
-The fact that all things exist does not show that existence is not a property
Solders Criticism
-definition gives a condition for something counting as that sort of thing
-if part of the definition of a bachelor being unmarried then all we can infer is that of a bachelor exists
then he will be unmarried
Principle of the common cause
X & Y are very similar or identical
- two possible explanations for same conclusion common source
If x & y are similar in some respect then x & y have a common cause
Eg. Barometer says highalways a storm
Global wide questionwhy does the universe exist at all?
Should we believe that god made it?
Sober- causation is a relation between events that occur in space and time
The ontological Argument
Possible worlds version
-god is a necessary being
-it is possible that god exists
-therefore, in some possible world god exists
-but a necessary being exists in ALL possible worlds
-therefore that being exists in every world
-that being –god- exists in the actual world
Problems with possible worlds version?
-is god possible
-we proved necessary beings exist why must it be god
-more particularly why does a necessary being have properties of (omni-o-b-p)
-is necessary being a perfection
a possible analogy
is there are prime number between 49929 & 99961
if it is true then there is a world where there is such a prime number
since #s are necessary beings then it would exist in all worlds
www.notesolution.com
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Document Summary

Predictively equivalent- two hypothesis that lead to the same conclusion science cant tell them apart by testing remember the conditions of plausibility. Priori can be known simply by use of concepts and without any experience or observations (posteriori) A priori truth and existence some a priori truth entail existence how do a priori existence claim affect the question: why is there something rather than nothing an a priori existence claims ensures that question. Two distinctions a priori / a posteriori necessary / contingent. First premises: god is possible noted this is an objective claim. We can conceive or imagine what is not possible ex. Second premise: existence is a kind of perfection. If it did not we could conceiver of one more perfect which is impossible. The fact that all things exist does not show that existence is not a property. X & y are very similar or identical. Two possible explanations for same conclusion common source.

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