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Lecture 9

PSYB01H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Dependent And Independent Variables, Confounding, Random Assignment


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYB01H3
Professor
Anna Nagy
Lecture
9

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Week 11 Lecture #9.5 Wednesday, July 22, 2015
Additional Online Lecture on Chapter 11
CHAPTER 11: SINGLE CASE, QUASI-EXPERIMENT AND DEVELOPMENT
RESEARCH
- experiment design best for validity and reliability
- since everything is the same except for the manipulated variable, so high reliability
- but not every study can be a experimental design ethnical problems
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
Describe single case experimental designs and discuss reasons to use this design
Describe the five types of evaluations involved in program evaluation research:
needs assessment, program assessment, process evaluation, outcome evaluation,
and efficiency assessment
Describe the one-group posttest-only design
Describe the one-group pretest-posttest design and the associated threats to
internal validity that may occur: history, maturation, testing, instrument decay,
and regression toward the mean
Describe the nonequivalent control group design and nonequivalent control group
pretest-posttest design, and discuss the advantages of having a control group
Distinguish between the interrupted time series design and control series design
Describe cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential research designs, including
the advantages and disadvantages of each design
Define cohort effect
PROGRAM EVALUATION
1. NEEDS ASSESSMENT: parent assessing a program for their child (but keep in mind
all the biases we have with assessing)
2. PROGRAM THEORY ASSESSMENT: assess at various time point and look at all the
variable, look at needs
3. PROCESS EVALUATION: instead of waiting to the end when we look at outcome,
conducted along the way, look at the implications of your
programs
4. OUTCOME EVALUATION: might involve more than one variable, look at
problematic factors that people opposed,
5. EFFICIENCY ASSESSMENT
- Example: Should we allow safe injection sites?
- are medical facilities, staffed by professionals, places where ppl can inject their
drugs, special permission required
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QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS
- One-Group Posttest-Only Design/ “One Shot Case Study”
- whatever you can get is better than nth
Example… what happens when ppl feel uncomfortable, participants told to go sit
next to a stranger, measure of time when the stranger leaves
What’s wrong with this scenario?
- was it the participant who caused the stranger to leave? no control of other
variables (/reasons) why stranger might have departed quicker than usual
- no control over the participants, or confound variables
- found in company training, how well you did on a test (on training)
- Nonequivalent Control Group Design
- have a control group
- these are participants who are drawn from the population, using non probability
sampling
- even tho you have a control group, the individual factors of the participants might affect
the outcome (other than IV)
- ppl who chose the training program, more motivated in the first place, mb they smoked
more/less, are limitations in internal validity
- One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design
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